In Islam there is the basic doctrine (upper wisdom) that is made superior above the cultural guides (situational instructions). For example, verses Q.17, v.22- 39 list several doctrines. Islam is not a Mohametan cult.
Prophet Muhammad himself ever forbids Moslems from following his opinion if it suggested the dismissal or undermining of Scriptures rather than just complementary or temporal exceptional excuse.
Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5830
Musa b. Talha reported: Allah’s Messenger said: If there is any use of it, then they should do it, for it was just a personal opinion of mine, and do not go after my personal opinion; but when I say to you anything on behalf of Allah, then do accept it, for I do not attribute lie to Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.
On misogynist bias, there’s no sin for Moslems if we don’t take the female slaves in war (even though early Moslems did it), rather Qur’an commands the liberation of slaves as many as possible, whereas Sunnah makes even a slightly slapping of slaves as a valid reason for the immediate manumission.
There’s no sin for Moslems if we don’t take four wives (even though early Moslems did it), rather Qur’an commands the monogamous life as preference, whereas Sunnah has the old poor abandoned widows as spousal preference.
There’s no sin for Moslems if we don’t beat our wives for disciplinary action (even though early Moslems did it), rather Sunnah makes any physical beating as a valid reason for immediate divorcement.
There’s no sin for Moslems if we don’t marry the postpubescent women in rush (even though early Moslems did it), rather Sunnah makes it obligatory for woman to give her consent for her marriage and future.
There’s no sin for Moslems if we don’t operate the private part of mature woman on purpose to please her husband (even though early Moslems did it), rather Sunnah makes it obligatory for young males to get circumcised.
Personal opinion is judged solely by its “pragmatic utility” or “realist benefit” in a life.
Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5831
Rafi’ b. Khadij reported: They made a mention of it (to the Prophet), whereupon he said: I am a human being, so when I command you about a thing pertaining to religion, do accept it, and when I command you about a thing out of my personal opinion, keep it in mind that I am a human being. ‘Ikrima reported that he said something like this.
Muslim, Book 30, Hadith 5832
Anas reported: Thereupon he the Prophet said: You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world.
Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 3959
Abu Musa narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: “That will not be like killing the idolaters, rather you will kill one another, until a man will kill his neighbor and son of the cousin and a relative.” Some of the people said: “O Messenger of Allah, will we be in our right minds that day?” The Messenger of Allah said: “No, reason will be taken away from most of the people at that time, and there will be left the insignificant people who have no reason.”
Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 3979
It was narrated from Hudhaifah bin Yaman that the Messenger of Allah said: “Adhere to the main body (ummah) of the Muslims and their leader. If there is no such body and no leader, then withdraw from all their groups, even if you bite onto the trunk of a tree until death finds you in that state.”
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