Refutation of the lie that the alleged prophet Mohammed married ‘Aa’ishah when she was 18 years old

Islam Question and Answer

General Supervisor: Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid


I read in a newspaper an article entitled “Young journalist corrects a thousand-year-old mistake of leading scholars”. What was said in the article may be summed up as follows:

1. The idea that the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married the Mother of the Believers ‘Aa’ishah when she was six years old and consummated the marriage with her when she was nine years old, based on the report narrated by al-Bukhaari, is wrong, and the mistake has to do with the age of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) at that time.

2. From researching historical sources (according to what the author of the article says), it is clear that the real age of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) when the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) consummated the marriage with her was 18 years, not 9 years.

3. This mistake was overlooked by all the Muslim scholars, and was not discovered except by this journalist!

I hope that you can explain this matter to ordinary Muslims and give us the Islamic perspective on this issue.

Published Date: 2015-01-17

Praise be to Allah.

Firstly:

The saheeh hadiths state that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did the marriage contract with ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) when she was six years old, and consummated the marriage with her when she was nine years old. These hadiths include the following:

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married me when I was six years old and he consummated the marriage with me when I was nine years old.  We came to Madinah and stayed among Banu’l-Haarith ibn Khazraj, and I fell sick… My mother Umm Roomaan came to me when I was on a swing and some of my friends were with me. She called me loudly and I went to her, and I did not know what she wanted of me. She took me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house, as I was gasping for breath, until I had calmed down. Then she took some water and wiped my face and head with it, then she took me into the house. There were some women of the Ansaar in the house, who said: With good wishes and blessings and good luck. She handed me over to them and they adorned me, and suddenly I saw the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) at mid-morning, and they handed me over to him. At that time I was nine years old.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3894) and Muslim (1422)

It was narrated from her (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said: I used to play with dolls in the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and I had friends who would play with me. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered they would hide themselves and he would call them to come and play with me.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (7130) and Muslim (2440).

Abu Dawood (4932) narrated from her (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came back from the campaign to Tabook or Khaybar and there was a curtain over her niche. The wind lifted the edge of the curtain and uncovered ‘Aa’ishah’s toy dolls. He said: “What is this, O ‘Aa’ishah?” She said: My dolls. He saw among them a horse with two wings made of cloth and he said: “What is this that I see in the midst of them?” She said: A horse. He said: “What is this that I see on it?” I said: Two wings. He said: “A horse with wings?” She said: Have you not heard that Sulaymaan had horses with wings? She said: And the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) smiled so broadly that I saw his eyeteeth.

Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Adaab az-Zafaaf (p. 203)

Al-Haafiz said:

Al-Khattaabi said: A concession was only granted allowing ‘Aa’ishah to play with them (toys) because at that time she had not yet reached the age of puberty. I say: As to whether this was the case, we cannot be certain but it is possible, because at the time of the campaign to Khaybar, ‘Aa’ishah was fourteen years old, so either she had reached the age of fourteen or had passed that age or was close to it. But at the time of the campaign to Tabook, she had definitely passed the age of fourteen, so the reports of those who say that it was Khaybar are more likely to be correct. End quote. The campaign to Khaybar occurred in 7 AH.

Muslim (1422) narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married her when she was seven years old and she was taken to him as a bride when she was nine years old, and she took her dolls with her. He died when she was eighteen years old.

An-Nawawi said:

What is meant by dolls is these toys that young girls play with; this highlights that she was very young. End quote.

In this report she said that she was seven years old, but in most of the reports it says that she was six years old. The way to reconcile between the reports is to note that she was six years and some months, so sometimes she only mentioned the years, and sometimes she counted the year that she had embarked upon (her seventh year). This was suggested by an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim.

Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated that this is a matter on which the scholars were agreed, and there was no report that any one of them disagreed.

He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The words “he married her when she was six years old and consummated the marriage with her when she was nine years old” are a matter concerning which there is no difference of opinion among the scholars, as it is proven in the Saheehs and elsewhere, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) consummated the marriage with her two years after he migrated to Madinah.

End quote from al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah (3/161)

It is well-known that scholarly consensus is protected from error, because the ummah cannot agree on misguidance. At-Tirmidhi (2167) narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Allah will not cause my ummah to agree on misguidance.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami‘ (1848)

Secondly:

The writer of the article mentioned was led by his ignorance and fanatical support for his false view to tell many lies and twist things, aiming thereby to support his falsehood.

For example, he quotes Ibn Katheer as saying, in al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah, concerning the earliest Muslims: “Among the woman were Asma’ bint Abi Bakr and ‘Aa’ishah, when she was small; these people became Muslim within three years.” But we have not come across these words in al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah. Rather Ibn Katheer said (3/25): The first free man to believe was Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq; the first child was ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib; and the first woman was Khadeejah bint Khuwaylid. End quote. He did not mention either Asma’ or ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with them both).

In fact ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was born approximately four years after the Prophet’s mission began.

This author also says:

“All the sources, without exception, say that she – i.e., Asma’ – was ten years older than ‘Aa’ishah.”

That is not the case. Adh-Dhahabi said in Siyar A‘laam an-Nubala’ (3/522): Asma’ was more than ten years older than ‘Aa’ishah.” End quote.

The Arabic phrase translated here as “more than ten” may refer to any number between thirteen and twenty.

Thirdly:

The fact that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) when she was nine years old is nothing strange. It is well-known that the age at which girls reach puberty varies according to race and environment. In hot regions girls reach puberty earlier, whereas in cold polar regions puberty may be delayed until the age of twenty-one years.

At-Tirmidhi said: ‘Aa’ishah said: When a girl reaches the age of nine years, she is a woman.

Sunan at-Tirmidhi (2/409)

Imam ash-Shaafa‘i said: In Yemen I saw many girls aged nine who had reached puberty.

Siyar A‘laam an-Nubala’ (10/91)

Al-Bayhaqi (1588) narrated that ash-Shaafa‘i said: The earliest age at which I heard of girls reaching puberty was the women of Tihaamah who reach puberty at the age of nine.

Ash-Shaafa‘i also said: In San‘aa’ I saw a grandmother who was twenty-one years old; she reached puberty at the age of nine and gave birth at the age of ten, and her daughter reached puberty at the age of nine and gave birth at the age of ten.

As-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi (1/319)

Based on that, the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) consummated his marriage with ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) when she had reached puberty or was very close to it.

For more information, please see the answer to question no. 44990

What is required of anyone who speaks about any branch of knowledge is that he should speak on the basis of knowledge and fairness, far removed from ignorance, fanaticism and following whims and desires.

It is sufficient evil for a person to fabricate a view that was not uttered by any of the scholars throughout the centuries. This indicates that this view is wrong. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Every view that is held by only one of the later scholars, and not by any of the earlier scholars, for which there is no precedent among any of the earlier scholars, is wrong, as Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: Beware of developing a view that you have never heard from any scholar. End quote.

Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (21/291)

We ask Allah to show as the truth as truth and enable us to follow it, and to show us falsehood as false, and enable us to avoid it.

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13 Responses to Refutation of the lie that the alleged prophet Mohammed married ‘Aa’ishah when she was 18 years old

  1. θ says:

    “Article says: The Arabic phrase translated here as “more than ten” may refer to any number between thirteen and twenty.”

    13 to 20? What a long interval. Why can’t the author of Siyar Nubala be more certain?
    A fact that the author of Siyar Nubala gives too-greater interval in his counting turns to be a mitigating evidence how the author apparently to get a degradation of memory on this particular topic. That’s usual though.

    Nevertheless, if the difference of age between Aisha and Asma is put 13 years, it results Aisha was not longer at her tender age, but a mature woman of 17-18 years old at time she stayed with Prophet Muhammad in Madinah in 2 Hijrah.
    This is a simple calculation for that:
    According to the historical books Taqrib al-Tahzib and Bidayah wa Nihayah, Asma died in 73 Hijrah at 100 y.o. She must be around 28 y.o. at 1 Hijrah. Historian Ibn Kathir cites Ibn Abi al-Zinad on the 13-years difference of birth between Asma and Aisha, hence Aisha is 15-16 y.o. at that time.
    As result, in 2 Hijrah Aisha was around 17-18 y.o. at time of her marriage.

  2. madmanna says:

    “It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) married me when I was six years old and he consummated the marriage with me when I was nine years old.

    Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3894) and Muslim (1422)

    Aisha testifies against you.

  3. madmanna says:

    “According to the historical books Taqrib al-Tahzib and Bidayah wa Nihayah, Asma died in 73 Hijrah at 100 y.o. She must be around 28 y.o. at 1 Hijrah. Historian Ibn Kathir cites Ibn Abi al-Zinad on the 13-years difference of birth between Asma and Aisha, hence Aisha is 15-16 y.o. at that time.
    As result, in 2 Hijrah Aisha was around 17-18 y.o. at time of her marriage.”

    All speculation.
    Not to compare with Aisha’s own testimony.

  4. madmanna says:

    “She must be around 28 y.o. at 1 Hijrah. ”

    Why, because you want this to be true?

  5. θ says:

    You don’t know Arabic language, do you?
    Nine and six year which she mentions are counted “after” Aisha becomes a “Bikr”, i.e. post-pubescent woman, الْبِكْرُ .
    Aisha was the Bikr-bride of Prophet Muhammad, meaning the post-pubescent virgin.
    She is not called Sibyah (underage, prepubescent teen).

    (i) Sibyah (الصِّبْيَانَ prepubescent underage girl):

    Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Book 42, Hadith 104
    ‘Anbas said, I saw Ibn ‘Umar greet children ( الصِّبْيَانِ) in the schools.
    حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ عَنْبَسَةَ قَالَ‏:‏ رَأَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَى الصِّبْيَانِ فِي الْكُتَّابِ‏.‏

    Muslim, Book 19, Hadith 4457
    The Messenger of Allah used not to kill the children ( الصِّبْيَانَ) , so thou shouldst not kill them unless you could know what Khadir had known about the child he killed, or you could distinguish between a child who would grow up to he a believer (and a child who would grow up to be a non-believer), so that you killed the (prospective) non-believer and left the (prospective) believer aside.
    وَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَكُنْ يَقْتُلُ الصِّبْيَانَ فَلاَ تَقْتُلِ الصِّبْيَانَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونَ تَعْلَمُ مَا عَلِمَ الْخَضِرُ مِنَ الصَّبِيِّ الَّذِي قَتَلَ ‏.‏ وَزَادَ إِسْحَاقُ فِي حَدِيثِهِ عَنْ حَاتِمٍ وَتُمَيِّزَ الْمُؤْمِنَ فَتَقْتُلَ الْكَافِرَ وَتَدَعَ الْمُؤْمِنَ ‏.‏

    (ii) Bikr ( الْبِكْرُ postpubescent virgin). Bikr ought to be asked for her consent and responsibility.
    Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 86, Hadith 101
    Narrated `Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, It is essential to have the consent of a virgin ( الْبِكْرُ) (for the marriage). I said, A virgin feels shy. The Prophet said, Her silence means her consent. To people he said, If a man falls in love with an orphan slave girl or a virgin and she refuses (him) and then he makes a trick by bringing two false witnesses to testify that he has married her, and then she attains the age of puberty (Fa adrakat Faradiyati) and agrees to marry him and the judge (Qadi) accepts the false witness and the husband knows that the witnesses were false ones, he may consummate his marriage.
    ـ قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ الْبِكْرُ تُسْتَأْذَنُ ‏”‏‏.‏ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الْبِكْرَ تَسْتَحْيِي قَالَ ‏”‏ إِذْنُهَا صُمَاتُهَا ‏”‏‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنْ هَوِيَ رَجُلٌ جَارِيَةً يَتِيمَةً أَوْ بِكْرًا، فَأَبَتْ فَاحْتَالَ فَجَاءَ بِشَاهِدَىْ زُورٍ عَلَى أَنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا، فَأَدْرَكَتْ فَرَضِيَتِ الْيَتِيمَةُ، فَقَبِلَ الْقَاضِي شَهَادَةَ الزُّورِ، وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ بِبُطْلاَنِ ذَلِكَ، حَلَّ لَهُ الْوَطْءُ‏.‏

    (iii) Aisha was married as a Bikr ( بِكْرًا postpubescent virgin)
    Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book 62, Hadith 14
    Narrated `Aisha: I said, O Allah’s Messenger Suppose you landed in a valley where there is a tree of which something has been eaten and then you found trees of which nothing has been eaten, of which tree would you let your camel graze? He said, (I will let my camel graze) of the one of which nothing has been eaten before. (The sub-narrator added: `Aisha meant that Allah’s Messenger had not married a virgin ( بِكْرًا) besides herself .)
    حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَخِي، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ نَزَلْتَ وَادِيًا وَفِيهِ شَجَرَةٌ قَدْ أُكِلَ مِنْهَا، وَوَجَدْتَ شَجَرًا لَمْ يُؤْكَلْ مِنْهَا، فِي أَيِّهَا كُنْتَ تُرْتِعُ بَعِيرَكَ قَالَ ‏ “‏ فِي الَّذِي لَمْ يُرْتَعْ مِنْهَا ‏”‏‏.‏ تَعْنِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَتَزَوَّجْ بِكْرًا غَيْرَهَا‏.‏

  6. θ says:

    You don’t know Arabic language, do you?
    Nine-year and six-year which she mentions are counted “after” Aisha becomes a “Bikr”, i.e. post-pubescent virgin, الْبِكْرُ .
    A Bikr already attains puberty, becoming woman, having consent, hence nine-year and six-year which she mentions are also regarded as the interval of time “after” she chooses to embrace Islam by her will, i.e. as a Moslem.

    Aisha was the Bikr-bride of Prophet Muhammad, meaning the post-pubescent virgin.
    She is not called Sabyan (underage, prepubescent teen).

    (i) Sabyan (الصِّبْيَانَ prepubescent underage girl):

    Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Book 42, Hadith 104
    ‘Anbas said, I saw Ibn ‘Umar greet children ( الصِّبْيَانِ) in the schools.
    حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، قَالَ‏:‏ حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ عَنْبَسَةَ قَالَ‏:‏ رَأَيْتُ ابْنَ عُمَرَ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَى الصِّبْيَانِ فِي الْكُتَّابِ‏.‏

    Muslim, Book 19, Hadith 4457
    The Messenger of Allah used not to kill the children ( الصِّبْيَانَ) , so thou shouldst not kill them unless you could know what Khadir had known about the child he killed, or you could distinguish between a child who would grow up to he a believer (and a child who would grow up to be a non-believer), so that you killed the (prospective) non-believer and left the (prospective) believer aside.
    وَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَكُنْ يَقْتُلُ الصِّبْيَانَ فَلاَ تَقْتُلِ الصِّبْيَانَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونَ تَعْلَمُ مَا عَلِمَ الْخَضِرُ مِنَ الصَّبِيِّ الَّذِي قَتَلَ ‏.‏ وَزَادَ إِسْحَاقُ فِي حَدِيثِهِ عَنْ حَاتِمٍ وَتُمَيِّزَ الْمُؤْمِنَ فَتَقْتُلَ الْكَافِرَ وَتَدَعَ الْمُؤْمِنَ ‏.‏

    (ii) Bikr ( الْبِكْرُ postpubescent virgin). A Bikr ought to be asked for her consent and responsibility.
    Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 86, Hadith 101
    Narrated `Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, It is essential to have the consent of a virgin ( الْبِكْرُ) (for the marriage). I said, A virgin feels shy. The Prophet said, Her silence means her consent. To people he said, If a man falls in love with an orphan slave girl or a virgin and she refuses (him) and then he makes a trick by bringing two false witnesses to testify that he has married her, and then she attains the age of puberty (Fa adrakat Faradiyati) and agrees to marry him and the judge (Qadi) accepts the false witness and the husband knows that the witnesses were false ones, he may consummate his marriage.
    ـ قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ الْبِكْرُ تُسْتَأْذَنُ ‏”‏‏.‏ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الْبِكْرَ تَسْتَحْيِي قَالَ ‏”‏ إِذْنُهَا صُمَاتُهَا ‏”‏‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنْ هَوِيَ رَجُلٌ جَارِيَةً يَتِيمَةً أَوْ بِكْرًا، فَأَبَتْ فَاحْتَالَ فَجَاءَ بِشَاهِدَىْ زُورٍ عَلَى أَنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا، فَأَدْرَكَتْ فَرَضِيَتِ الْيَتِيمَةُ، فَقَبِلَ الْقَاضِي شَهَادَةَ الزُّورِ، وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ بِبُطْلاَنِ ذَلِكَ، حَلَّ لَهُ الْوَطْءُ‏.‏

    (iii) Aisha was married as a Bikr-bride ( بِكْرًا postpubescent virgin)
    Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book 62, Hadith 14
    Narrated `Aisha: I said, O Allah’s Messenger Suppose you landed in a valley where there is a tree of which something has been eaten and then you found trees of which nothing has been eaten, of which tree would you let your camel graze? He said, (I will let my camel graze) of the one of which nothing has been eaten before. (The sub-narrator added: `Aisha meant that Allah’s Messenger had not married a virgin ( بِكْرًا) besides herself .)
    حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَخِي، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ نَزَلْتَ وَادِيًا وَفِيهِ شَجَرَةٌ قَدْ أُكِلَ مِنْهَا، وَوَجَدْتَ شَجَرًا لَمْ يُؤْكَلْ مِنْهَا، فِي أَيِّهَا كُنْتَ تُرْتِعُ بَعِيرَكَ قَالَ ‏ “‏ فِي الَّذِي لَمْ يُرْتَعْ مِنْهَا ‏”‏‏.‏ تَعْنِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمْ يَتَزَوَّجْ بِكْرًا غَيْرَهَا‏.‏

  7. madmanna says:

    So Aisha lied about her age according to you?
    Now you are slandering your prophets wife?
    How many lashes for you?

    Bukhari and Muslim are reliable hadiths, according to Muslim scholars.

    They both recount that Aisha stated her age to be 6 at marriage and 9 at consumation.

    I don’t want to see any more Arabic in your comments please.

    English only here please.

  8. madmanna says:

    “Narrated `Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, It is essential to have the consent of a virgin ( الْبِكْرُ) (for the marriage). I said, A virgin feels shy. The Prophet said, Her silence means her consent.”

    You see the trick. An old muslim man asks a child if she wants to marry him. She does not understand and says nothing. Then the old Muslim trickster says “thank you for consenting to marry me”.

    Bah.

  9. θ says:

    “madmanna says: Bukhari and Muslim are reliable hadiths, according to Muslim scholars. They both recount that Aisha stated her age to be 6 at marriage and 9 at consumation.”

    Any personal statement from any Non-Prophetic person doesn’t have a binding rule on Moslems. Unless Aisha mentioned the reference to Prophet Muhammad, such as saying “our Prophet Muhammad orders all male Moslems to put 9 years old as the minimum age for girls to marry” nobody would take Aisha’s words or opinions as the valid basis for marriage.

  10. θ says:

    “madmanna says: You see the trick. An old muslim man asks a child if she wants to marry him. She does not understand and says nothing. Then the old Muslim trickster says “thank you for consenting to marry me”. ”

    That’s why a Qadi is needed to validate a Marriage. It is ironic that in Iran Shiites claim they do not like Aisha much but eventually take her words when it comes to thighing with 9 years old prepubescent girl. What a shame.

  11. madmanna says:

    You’re still accusing Aisha of being a liar.

  12. madmanna says:

    “That’s why a Qadi is needed to validate a Marriage.”

    Who was Mohammed’s Qadi?

  13. θ says:

    “madmanna says: Who was Mohammed’s Qadi?”

    Aisha’s own father, Abu Bakr.
    Abu Bakr has to validate the betrothal and proceed it to the marriage after obtaining the consent of Aisha when she reaches the Age of Consent.
    The word Qadi comes from Arabic verb “Qaadin” (Q.20, v.72) meaning “to decide” or “to determine”. In Hadith, relating to marriage a Qadi is one in whose hand is the knot of marriage (Muwatta, Book 28, Hadith 11 and Q.2, v.237), he can be from father of a virgin, the master of a female slave, and they who possess the qualifications of a jurist, that is, one is well versed in the law.
    Muwatta, Book 28, Hadith 11
    The marriage was affirmed for the son, if he was a minor, only if he was under the guardianship of his father. Malik said that if a man divorced his wife before he had consummated the marriage and she was a virgin, her father returned half of the bride-price to him. That half was permitted to the husband from the father to compensate him for his expenses. Malik said that that was because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, “Unless they (women with whom he had not consummated marriage) make remission or he makes remission to him in whose hand is the knot of marriage.” (Sura 2:237). He is the father of a virgin daughter or the master of a female slave.

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