Islam and the People of the Book

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam
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In the Qur’an and Hadith, the term People of the Book (أهل الكتاب‎ ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is used to refer to followers of certain monotheistic faiths which pre-date the advent of Islam. In particular, it refers to the Christian, Jewish, and Sabian faiths.[1] This page contains summaries of articles discussing the relationship between Islam and the People of the Book.

This is a core topic which contains summaries
of WikiIslam articles related to it

Revealed Scriptures

Revelation is the medium by which Allah claims to have communicated his words to his prophets so that they may inform the people of his will, what he wants from them and what they must do for him in order to be saved from eternal damnation.

The Torah/Old Testament

The Qur’an talks of the Taurat/Tawrah ( توراة ) referring to the Torah – the first five books of the Jewish Bible; found in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Some Muslims and scholars believe it refers to the entire Old Testament, but this view is not widely held.

The Psalms

The Zabur mentioned in the Qur’an refers to the Psalms of the Old Testament. The Qur’an asserts that the Zabur is one of the 3 Previous Revelations of Allah. Although they are only mentioned three times in the Qur’an, Allah tells us that he revealed them to David.

The New Testament/Four Gospels

The Qur’an talks of the Injil (إنجيل) referring to the New Testament of the Bible (usually the four Gospels), which it claims was given to Jesus, rather than being written by his followers.

The Qur’an

The Qur’ān (القرآن) is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the book of divine guidance and direction for mankind. The best-known chapter of the Qur’an is al-Fatiha ‘The Opening’. This surah is recited as part of all the mandatory daily prayers and repeated within each prayer. A faithful Muslim who said all their prayers would recite this surah at least seventeen times a day, and over five thousand times a year.

The hadith literature make negative references to the Jews and Christians in connection with this surah. Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din al-Hilali incorporate this within their translation. Ayah 6-7 thus reads; “Guide us to the Straight Way. The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians).”

It is remarkable that the daily prayers of every Muslim, part of the core of Islam, include a rejection of Christians and Jews as misguided and objects of Allah’s wrath.

Incompatibility with Previous Revelations

Does Qur’an 2:79 Prove Corruption of the Previous Scriptures?

It is a common belief among Muslims that the Qur’an states that the previous scriptures (the Taurat and Injil) have been physically corrupted by those who were charged with safeguarding it (the Jews and Christians). Thus, the Qur’an is the ‘return’ to the true message of the God of the Bible. When asked to provide evidence that the Qur’an says the previous scriptures have been corrupted, Muslims will proudly present verse 2:79 as evidence.

Shakir: Woe, then, to those who write the book with their hands and then say: This is from Allah, so that they may take for it a small price; therefore woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.

This article will examine What the Qur’an really says about the Taurat and Injil; and examine verse 2:79 in its own context, as well as against the aforementioned verses to see if the belief of physical scriptural corruption is valid.

Contradictions in Qur’anic Christology

There are already many articles on Wiki-Islam about contradictions and errors in the Qur’an concerning logic, history, mathematics, cosmology and many more subjects. In this article, however, we would like to describe a quite different kind of weakness of the Qur’an which we would like to refer to as lack of theological professionalism. Even if we overlook the errors in the Qur’an, it is still surprising that the author of this holy book in some cases looks like somebody who cannot make the right use of quotations from Christian literature for his own argumentation. We want to show this by the example of the Christology in the Qur’an.

In this approach, the Qur’an, the Bible and any other text mentioned are regarded as texts written by human beings, not by God. Also, our intention is not to decide which of the opinions concerning the nature of Jesus are true or untrue. Instead we would like to focus on the quality of the arguments rendered in the Qur’an. From this viewpoint, we would like to elaborate the Christological opinions of the Qur’an compared to the Bible and show how they are expressed.

Parallelism Between the Qur’an and Judeo-Christian Scriptures

The similarities between the Qur’an and previous scriptures has been noted since the advent of Islam. However, the Judeo-Christian tales and their Qur’anic counterparts do not always match. There are three explanations for this:

  1. The original Judeo-Christian scriptures have been corrupted (as Muslims like to claim).
  2. Muhammad imperfectly borrowed from the Judeo-Christian scriptures.
  3. The Qur’an has been corrupted.

It is an epistemological matter as to which of the three is correct. The Qur’an’s assertion that the Judeo-Christian scriptures have been corrupted is mere accusation devoid of evidence. This thirteen-page long in-depth study looks at the following parallelisms between the Qur’an and Judeo-Christian Scriptures:

  • Talking baby Jesus
  • Mary daughter of Amran & sister of Aaron
  • Sanhedrin 37a
  • the raven and the burial of Abel
  • Mary, Jesus and the Trinity
  • Jesus and the clay birds
  • Mary’s upbringing & her relationship with Zachariah
  • Mary, Jesus & the palm tree
  • Satan’s refusal to prostrate to Adam
  • the Queen of Sheba
  • the wealth of Korah
  • and Abraham & the idols.

Biblical and Islamic Figures


According to Islam, Allāh is the Creator of the Universe. Allah does not mean ‘God’ but rather ‘the God’ [2] and is thus one of the remnants of Islam’s polytheistic origins. In the pre-Islamic era, Allah was the supreme creator god of the Arabs, a moon god who lived in a rock located in the Ka’aba. [2] Yet he was still only one god among the many others they believed in.[3] The goddesses; Allāt (the feminine form of “Allah”, meaning ‘the goddess’ ),[4] Manat, and al-Uzza were Allah’s daughters.[2]

Jesus Christ

In Islam, Isa al-Masih (عيسى المسي usually translated as Jesus Christ) is not believed to be the Son of God, but simply a ‘messenger’, inferior in status to Muhammad. While Muslims will claim they “love Jesus”, it is clearly evident that they do not love Yasū‘ (يسوع the actual Arabic term for Jesus, which is used by Arab Christians),[5] but love the Islamic Isa who, when studied, shares little in common with the founder of Christianity.

The Virgin Mary

The Qur’anic verses 21:91 and 66:12 in conjunction with the tafsir’s, tell us the angel Jibreel was sent to breathe Allah’s spirit into Maryam’s (مريم Mary’s) vagina. Qur’an 5:116 tells us the Trinity consists of three separate gods, which are the Father (God), the Mother (Virgin Mary) and the Son (Jesus), and due to this abysmal ignorance of the Trinity doctrine, Muslims consider all Trinitarian Christians to be polytheists. Also according to Muhammad, Mary will be one of his wives in paradise.

Muhammad said, “In heaven, Mary mother of Jesus, will be one of my wives.”

al-Siyuti (6/395)
“The Messenger of God … said, ‘God married me in paradise to Mary the daughter of ‘Imran and to the wife of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses.’” [6]


The Angel Gabriel

According to Islamic scriptures, Jibreel (جبريل Gabriel) is the angel who first appeared to Muhammad in the cave of Hijra and taught Muhammad the Qur’an. The initial experience frightened Muhammad, and originally thinking he was possessed by a demon, the Islamic prophet became suicidal.

Under Islamic Rule


The term Dhimmitude is derived from Dhimmi, which means a non-Muslim living in an Islamic country. Robert Spencer has defined it as “the status that Islamic law, the Sharia, mandates for non-Muslims, primarily Jews and Christians”. According to orthodox Islamic law, those who are qualified for the second-class Dhimmi status within the Muslim society are the free (i.e non-slave) Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians, who agree to pay the jizyah. Adherents of other religions, as well as those without religion, are asked to convert to Islam; if they refuse, they are to be forced to convert.

Jizyah Tax

Summon the people to God; those who respond to your call, accept it from them, but those who refuse must pay the poll tax out of humiliation and lowliness. If they refuse this, it is the sword without leniency. Fear God with regard to what you have been entrusted.[7]

Umar ibn al-Khattab during the conquest of al-Basrah (636 CE)

According to the Qur’an and hadith, Jizyah or jizya (جزْي) is the extra tax imposed on non-Muslims (Dhimmis) who live under Muslim rule. It is paid as a sign of submission and gives dhimmis some legal protection in return. Under dhimmitude (the status that Islamic law, the Sharia, mandates for non-Muslims) Dhimmis usually are not allowed to carry arms to protect themselves, serve in the army or government, display symbols of their faith, build or repair places of worship etc. If the conquered do not wish to pay or convert, their fate may very well be slavery (under which, rape is permitted) or (as evidenced in the quotes above) death.

Forced Conversion

This article simply provides information about the Islamic use of forced conversion and forced submission or expulsion as evidenced by Islamic scripture and historical and contemporary writings. For example, According to the respected scholar, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, jihad should be waged against Jews and Christians because they are guilty of committing shirk (one of the gravest sins in Islam), their beliefs about the Day of Judgement are not Islamic, and they do not follow the laws of Islam revealed to Muhammad.[8]

The Destruction of Non-Muslim Worship Places

Throughout history, Muslims have destroyed worship places (churches, synagogues, temples) of other religions or converted them into mosques. In fact, the Ka’aba (the holiest shrine in Islam) was originally a pagan place of worship, used by the polytheist Arabs before Muhammad subsequently removed and destroyed everything considered idolatrous.

The Pact of Umar

Much has been said of the Pact of Umar,[9] and much of it distinctly positive. Its non-Muslim admirers gleefully compare its contents to the treatment of religious minorities in Medieval Europe, while ignoring its influence and conformity with Islamic scriptural sources which still govern the treatment of minorities in the East today. Some non-Muslim scholars of early Islam doubt the pact’s authenticity, highlighting the fact that the Islamic traditions surrounding the writing of the pact are a few hundred years removed from the actual events described, and that no contemporary sources refers to it at all. Sophronius’ (560 – 638 AD) authentic extant writings also refer to the Muslim conquerors in a very negative way, putting further doubts on the Muslim recollections of events.[10] Nevertheless, this article will accept its authenticity and analyse the rights and limitations placed on the Syrians, to see just how free non-Muslims really were under the Rightly-guided Caliph.

The Genocide of Banu Qurayza

Hijra year 5 (627 AD), Almost nine hundred Jews (including children) of a Medinan tribe named Banu Qurayza were massacred by Muslims in one day. Muhammad was the lead spectator of this atrocious butchery which began early in the day, ending in torchlight. Those who escaped death were taken captive by Muslims and sold in slave markets. This genocide is known in history as the Banu Qurayza incident.


Are Judaism and Christianity as Violent as Islam?

“There is far more violence in the Bible than in the Qur’an; the idea that Islam imposed itself by the sword is a Western fiction, fabricated during the time of the crusades when, in fact, it was Western Christians who were fighting brutal holy wars against Islam.”[11] So announces former nun and self-professed “freelance monotheist,” Karen Armstrong. This quote sums up the single most influential argument currently serving to deflect the accusation that Islam is inherently violent and intolerant: All monotheistic religions, proponents of such an argument say, and not just Islam, have their fair share of violent and intolerant scriptures, as well as bloody histories. Thus, whenever Islam’s sacred scriptures—the Qur’an first, followed by the reports on the words and deeds of Muhammad (the Hadith)— are highlighted as demonstrating the religion’s innate bellicosity, the immediate rejoinder is that other scriptures, specifically those of Judeo-Christianity, are as riddled with violent passages.

But is that really the case? Does Hebrew violence in the ancient era, and Christian violence in the medieval era compare to, explain away or even legitimize the tenacity of Muslim violence in the modern era?

Pedophilia and the Tu Quoque Defense

This article refutes the claim that Joseph, the husband of Mary (the mother of Jesus Christ), was a pedophile, a popular yet erroneous tu quoque argument used to defend Prophet Muhammad’s pedophilic marriage to Aisha.

Upon reading the non-canonical apocrypha, the Christian equivalent of da`if (weak) or maudu (fabricated) hadith, we find it does not say Mary married Joseph when she was aged only 12. It in fact says she was possibly 17 years of age at the time the marriage was eventually consummated, if ever (Mary’s perpetual virginity, the belief that Mary remained a virgin her entire life, is an essential article of faith for the majority of the world’s Christians).

The most decisive argument against the claim that Joseph was a pedophile is the fact that the same non-canonical writings which are used to gather information on Joseph and Mary’s age, also confirm Mary’s status as “ever virgin” (in The History of Joseph the Carpenter, Jesus says on Joseph’s death “my mother, virgin undefiled”).

What Islamic Scripture and Scholars Say about the People of the Book

Islamic scripture and scholars have much to say in regards to Jews and Christians.

And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they! They have taken as lords beside Allah their rabbis and their monks and the Messiah son of Mary, when they were bidden to worship only One Allah. There is no Allah save Him. Be He Glorified from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)!

Antisemitism in Islam

Anti-Semitism is rampant among followers of Islam. This intense hatred of Jews is deeply rooted within Islamic scripture, and upon reading these texts, there is little wonder why Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler, is a best-seller in the Arab and Muslim World including; Egypt, Palestine,[12] “moderate” Turkey,[13][14] and is selling well in London areas with a large Arab population.[12] It is often sold along-side religious literature and strangely enough, Mein Kampf can be translated as “My Jihad” in Arabic. The book is also selling as well as Dan Brown’s latest novel in Dhaka, Bangladesh,[15] where sales soar towards Eid, as it is bought by many as gifts, and other anti-Semitic literature like Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[14] a 19th-century anti-Semitic tract are also hugely popular.

Muhammad’s personal hatred for Jews led him to declare that the Final Hour will not come until Muslims slaughter Jews, and even the rocks and trees will betray the Jews hiding behind them.

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.

Misquoting Jesus and Others in the Qur’an

“O Jesus son of Mary!” said the disciples, or so claims the Qur’an in surah 5:112. On the surface this quote from one of Jesus’ (Isa’s) disciples may seem unextraordinary, but there is a subtle error here that few ever notice. However, once it is noticed, few will ever forget. This article will show beyond a doubt that Muhammad was putting words into other people’s mouths and fabricating quotes so that he could artificially create reinforcement and confirmation of the points he was trying to make, which is that Jesus was not the Son of God and Muhammad is Allah’s prophesied final Messenger. It was by Muhammad’s good fortune that he was such a great military leader, for as a playwright he would have been sorely lacking.

Was Muhammad a Lesser Prophet than Moses or Jesus?

When Royalty assign a task to someone in person, it is often denoted as a great privilege and is considered as an honor to whom it is the Royal addressed. Conversely, when a subject is deemed unfit to associate with in a personal manner, the undesirable task may be assigned to a servant. With this in mind, it is surprising to learn that, according to the Qur’an, Musa and Isa (commonly identified with the Judeo-Christian Moses and Jesus) received revelations directly from Allah while Muhammad did not.

Islamic Hijabs and Nun’s Habits

Apologists often attempt to compare the Islamic observance of hijab with the wearing of the religious habit by Christian nuns. This comparison is fundamentally flawed and is one of many fallacious tu quoque arguments utilized in defense of Islam. In reality, there are numerous differences between the two items of clothing. For example, unlike the compulsory observance of hijab (in some form or another) for practicing Muslim women, practicing Christian women are not required or expected to wear a nun’s habit. Naturally, only nuns are. In fact, it would be considered quite bizarre for a Christian women to wear a nun’s habit is she were not a nun. The burka covers everything including the eyes, leaving women unrecognizable, visually impaired, and closed off to social interaction. The nun’s habit does not cover the face at all, so they cause no such problems. Also, if a nun were to remove her head covering, unlike a Muslim woman, she would not run the risk of being intimidated, ostracized or honor killed by her co-religionists. For example, Aqsa Parvez was a 16-year-old Muslim girl who was honor-killed in Ontario, Canada. Her brother had strangled her to death when she refused to wear a hijab covering.

See Also



Other Core Articles

Core articles contain an overview of other articles related to a specific issue, and serve as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn about Islam:

External Links


  1. “…Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians…” – Qur’an 2:62
  2. “Allah” – Encyclopedia Mythica from Encyclopedia Mythica Online; Accessed June 15, 2007.
  3. “Moon God”– Allah – the Moon God.
  4. Arne A. Ambros, and Stephan Procházka – A Concise Dictionary of Koranic Arabic (p. 306) – Weisbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3895004006
  5. Isa (name) – Etymology
  6. (Ibn Kathir, Qisas al-Anbiya [Cairo: Dar al-Kutub, 1968/1388], p. 381- as cited in Aliah Schleifer’s Mary The Blessed Virgin of Islam [Fons Vitae; ISBN: 1887752021; July 1, 1998], p. 64;
  7. Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari (Ta’rikh al rusul wa’l-muluk), vol. 12: The Battle of Qadissiyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine, trans. Yohanan Friedman (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992), p. 167.
  8. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi – Tafhim al-Qur’an (Quran 9:29, Footnotes 26 & 27)
  9. Paul Halsall – The Status of Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule– Medieval Sourcebook, January, 1996
  10. Robert Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Princeton, 1996) p. 69-71
  11. Andrea Bistrich, “Discovering the common grounds of world religions,” interview with Karen Armstrong, Share International, Sept. 2007, pp. 19-22.
  12. Sean O’Neill and John Steele – Mein Kampf for sale, in Arabic – The Telegraph – 19 March, 2002
  13. Robert Spencer – Mein Kampf becomes bestseller in Turkey -Jihad Watch – 19 March, 2005
  14. Antisemitism in the Turkish Media – MEMRI – April 28, 2005
  15. Alastair Lawson – Mein Kampf a hit on Dhaka streets – BBC News – 27 November, 2009
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5 Responses to Islam and the People of the Book

  1. θ says:

    “Article: Main Articles: Joseph the Pedophile and A Refutation of ‘The Islamophobe’s Glass House’ This article refutes the claim that Joseph, the husband of Mary (the mother of Jesus Christ), was a pedophile, a popular yet erroneous tu quoque argument used to defend Prophet Muhammad’s pedophilic marriage to Aisha. Upon reading the non-canonical apocrypha, the Christian equivalent of da`if (weak) or maudu (fabricated) hadith, we find it does not say Mary married Joseph when she was aged only 12. ”

    Different than Judaism and Christianity, Islam is not the religion of paedophilia.
    Islam legalises what is called the Age of Marriage (adrakat Faradiya), that is marked by the biological puberty on both man and woman. The Age of Marriage is the time when a person can personally verify and give permission over any agreement which involves his or her life. In Hadith, Prophet Muhammad makes a unique emphasis that it is essential to ask the consent or permission (Tusta’dhan تُسْتَأْذَنُ) of any woman after she attains her puberty.

    Basically the Protestantism doesn’t acknowledge the Age of marriage, hence it infers a silent overlook of paedophilia, whereas in the Catholicism the marriageable age is 14 y.o. In the Rabbinical Judaism the men are allowed to marry underage girls (known as Ketannah) from 3 y.o. to 12 years plus one day.

    The underage betrothal involved a boy (fiance) with a girl (fiancee) is allowed in Islam as well as Judaism and Christianity.

    In Islam, the consummation of betrothal to be a formal marriage needs a judge (Qadi) for validation. Any betrothal that was imposed upon an underage girl can be immediately invalidated her after she attains her puberty.
    Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 86, Hadith 101
    Narrated `Aisha: Allah’s Messenger said, It is essential to have the consent of a virgin (for the marriage). I said, A virgin feels shy. The Prophet; said, Her silence means her consent. To people he said, If a man falls in love with an orphan slave girl or a virgin and she refuses (him) and then he makes a trick by bringing two false witnesses to testify that he has married her, and then she attains the age of puberty (فَأَدْرَكَتْ فَرَضِيَتِ Fa adrakat Faradiyati) and agrees to marry him and the judge (Qadi الْقَاضِي) accepts the false witness and the husband knows that the witnesses were false ones, he may consummate his marriage.

    Betrothal of Islam is marked by a financial symbol called “Sadaqa” (bride-price) or “Hiba” (gift).

    Nevertheless, any future annulment of the betrothal would put obligation on the fiance to give up a half of the price for his fiancee, unless she or her family gave a pardon and a writing-off.
    Muwatta, Book 28, Hadith 11
    He (Malik) said, Whatever is given as a condition by which marriage occurs belongs to the woman if she wants it. If the husband parts from her before the marriage is consummated, the husband has half of the unreturnable gift (Hiba’ الْحِبَاءِ) by which the marriage occurred.
    Malik said about a man who married off his young son (ghulam الْغُلاَمُ) and the son had no wealth at all, that the bride-price was obliged of the father if the young man had no property on the day of marriage. If the young man did have property the bride-price was taken from his property unless the father stipulated that he would pay the bride-price.
    The marriage was affirmed for the son if he was a minor only if he was under the guardianship of his father.
    Malik said that if a man divorced his wife before he had consummated the marriage and she was a virgin, her father returned half of the bride-price to him. That half was permitted to the husband from the father to compensate him for his expenses. Malik said that that was because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, said in His Book, “Unless they (women with whom he had not consummated marriage) make remission or he makes remission to him in whose hand is the knot of marriage.” (Sura 2 ayat 237). He is the father of a virgin daughter or the master of a female slave.

  2. θ says:

    One of the unique roles of the people of Scriptures is they are those to whom Qur’an commands Prophet Muhammad to ask some intriguing concerns (Arabic: Shak), as Q.10. v.94, whereas Prophet Muhammad himself is the giver of response for all mankind who may have a concern or question about the religion of Allah, per Q.10, v.104.
    The people of Scriptures are asked in several verses that seemed against logical explanation and the more “unbelievable rejection” of it:
    Q.2, v.211 on various miracles of Jewish Prophets for time to time and how those acts can’t persuade one to believe. It seems as if the earthy unbelief were more unnatural than unnatural miracles. Isn’t it one’s hardened heart more miraculous than miracles?
    Q.7, v.163 on the Sabbath-breakers.
    Q.17, v.101 on nine miracles of Moses and how those acts can’t persuade Pharaoh to believe. It seems as if one’s unbelief were more unnatural than heavenly miracles. Isn’t it so stunning how nine miracles turn just less miraculous than one’s hardened heart?

  3. θ says:

    “Wikiiislam says: Hubal, Allah the Best Deceiver, and Allah the Polytheist. According to Islam, Allāh is the Creator of the Universe. Allah does not mean ‘God’ but rather ‘the God’ [2] and is thus one of the remnants of Islam’s polytheistic origins. In the pre-Islamic era, Allah was the supreme creator god of the Arabs, a moon god who lived in a rock located in the Ka’aba. [2] Yet he was still only one god among the many others they believed in.[3] The goddesses; Allāt (the feminine form of “Allah”, meaning ‘the goddess’ ),[4] Manat, and al-Uzza were Allah’s daughters.[2]”

    One of Hubal’s avatars is Baal Ha-ammon that was identified thru inscriptions of Punic deities as a moon god for the Phoenician colony of Carthage. Baal Ha-ammon (Punic: lbʻl ḥmn) is depicted with “two horns” resembling two crescents.

    Theios (Godhead) is actually three Furies in one?
    Apparently Paul mistakenly gets incorrect inspiration when preaching the Athenians to worship a lesser Godhead (Ho Theios) the Furies of Greeks – whose mythology tells he’s created from Uranus’ private part therefore he is not made by hands, gold, stone, man’s indeed – by referring to their ancient poems, such as Eumenides by Aeschylus (on the Erinyes, i.e. new cult of devotion three Furies in one, Acts 17:19-22) and Cretica by Epimenides (for phrase “in him we live and move and have our being” of Acts 17:28).
    Allusion to the new cult Erinyes (with deity of three Furies in one).
    Acts 17
    19 And they took him, and brought him unto Areopagus, saying, May we know what this new doctrine, whereof thou speakest, is? 20 For thou bringest certain strange things to our ears: we would know therefore what these things mean.21 For all the Athenians and strangers which were there spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell, or to hear some new thing. 22 Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars’ hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious. 23 For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, To The Unknown God. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

    Allusion to one Godhead (Ho Theios) of three spirits:
    Acts 17
    28 For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.29 Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device.

    In Athenians’ hearing, Paul apparently introduced the “Unknown God” by referring “him” as a Godhead (Ho Theios) of three Furies. The Furies were three female spirits in one embodiment whose power is over vengeance and retributive punishment over crimes against the ancient traditions.
    This godhead of three spirits will unleash vengeance if Athena’s devotees (Athenians, Greeks) refuse to respect “older gods”. In fear, Athena soothes their (or his) wrath by promising a special altar, that is the “Altar of the Unknown God” on where sacrifices were made regularly by Athenians. The Furies lived calmly in Athens with precondition of receiving a due honors in the name of the old laws.
    At the end of the Eumenides, Aeschylus introduces a new cult, the Erinyes by escorting them in procession to their new shrine, a cave on the slopes of the Areopagus.

    Aeschylus, Eumenides, p.956-57.
    Younger gods (e.g. Athena, Mercury, Diana, Apollo) ye have ridden down the ancient laws and have taken them from my hands, and I, dishonored, unhappy, deeply angry, on this land, alas, I will release venom from my heart, venom in return for my grief, drops that the land cannot endure. From it, a blight that destroys leaves, destroys children, a just return, speeding over the plain, will cast infection on the land to ruin mortals. I groan aloud. What shall I do? I am mocked by the people. What I have suffered is unbearable. Ah, cruel indeed are the wrongs of the daughters of Night, mourning over dishonor.

    His listeners may also have understood the introduction of a new god by allusions to Aeschylus’ The Eumenides; the irony would have been that just as the Eumenides were not new gods at all but the Furies in a new form, so was the Christian God not a new god but rather the god the Greeks already worshipped as the Unknown God.[7]

    In Greek mythology the Erinyes also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as “infernal goddesses”. A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them as “those who beneath the earth punish whosoever has sworn a false oath”.[8]
    Walter Burkert suggests they are “an embodiment of the act of self-cursing contained in the oath”.[9] They correspond to the Dirae in Roman mythology,[10] and some suppose that they are called Eumenides in hell, Furiae on earth, and Dirae in heaven.[11][12]
    According to Hesiod’s Theogony, when the Titan Cronus castrated his father, Uranus and threw his genitalia into the sea, the Erinyes as well as the Meliae emerged from the drops of blood when it fell on the earth (Gaia), while Aphrodite was born from the crests of sea foam.[13]

  4. madmanna says:

    “In Athenians’ hearing, Paul apparently introduced the “Unknown God” by referring “him” as a Godhead (Ho Theios) of three Furies.”

    No he didn’t.

  5. θ says:

    “madmanna says: “In Athenians’ hearing, Paul apparently introduced the “Unknown God” by referring “him” as a Godhead (Ho Theios) of three Furies.” No he didn’t.”

    The word “Godhead” can only be understood in one embodiment of three Furies.

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