“Our Prophet (peace be upon him) never started hostilities and never fought anyone unless it was truly necessary.”
If Muslims are only supposed to fight in self-defense, then the Battle of Badr would had to have been a case in which an enemy was attacking or marching on Muhammad at Medina. If this is what you want to believe, then stop right now and try to stay away from history books.
Muslim historians of the day meticulously documented the circumstances that preceded the Battle of Badr and there is not the least bit of wiggle room for anyone hoping to believe that Muslims fought in self-defense that day.
In the first place, the Meccans were not marching on Muhammad. They did send out an army – but it was to protect their caravans from Muslim raiders (who had recently killed Meccan caravan drivers defending their property). The Meccans were not interested in starting a war; only in seeing that their merchandise and drivers were unmolested by Muhammad’s pirates (see prior article on Muhammad’s Caravan Raids).
According to the historians of the day:
One popular misconception propagated by apologists is that the caravans were carrying the stolen goods of Muslims. There is no evidence for this from the record. In fact, not only do the historians say that the merchandise belonged to the Meccans, but the caravan was actually traveling to Mecca from Syria rather than from Mecca.
The account goes on to say that some of the Muslims were reluctant to participate in the attack because they did not want to go to war. Muhammad later refers to these peaceful Muslims as ‘Hypocrites’ in the Qur’an, where he also condemns them to Hell and demands that true Muslims deal with them harshly (66:9).
After Muhammad sent his men to attack the caravan, Abu Sufyan (his Meccan adversary) learned of his plans:
Muhammad himself declared that the Meccans were simply trying to protect their property:
Abu Sufyan even tried to avoid a battle by changing his route and calling for help. The Meccans then sent out a larger force of about 900 men to rescue the caravan.
A lengthy cat and mouse game ensued between Muhammad and the Meccans, in which the latter do nearly everything they can to avoid a conflict and make their way home (Ishaq/Hisham 433 to 443). Eventually Muhammad successfully forces them into battle by deliberately stopping up the water wells on which they depended for the trek back to Mecca – and then planting his army between the remaining wells and the thirsty Meccans.
What part of this could possibly be confused with self-defense on the part of Muhammad?
At that point, the Muslims clearly had the advantage against the weary and reluctant Meccans, even though they were lesser in number. Initially, they amused themselves by killing the few men desperate enough to try and reach the water:
The Muslims toyed with several other thirst-crazed Meccans in the same deadly manner before Muhammad finally gave the order to rout the “enemy.”
The period following the victorious battle was one of giddy celebration for the Muslims. The decapitated heads of Muhammad’s opponents from Mecca were presented to him, and their slayers honored. Live captives were brought before him as well, where he ordered some ransomed and others executed. In what seemed bizarre even to his own men, Muhammad walked among the bodies of the dead Meccans and taunted them, insisting that they could hear him in Hell (Bukhari 59:314).
The captured wealth of the Meccans was divided among the victors. Hamza, the man who had slaughtered the first Meccan attempting to reach water, turned his cruel amusement toward defenseless animals, cutting the humps off of camels and disemboweling them for no reason other than to relish their agony (Bukhari 59:340).
Amid the drunken carnage, Allah “spoke” to Muhammad and told him to make sure that the other Muslims gave him a fifth of the war booty. These words have become permanently recorded in the Qur’an (8:1), even though they have no relevance today.
The prophet of Islam also informed his men that their victory was actually due to a legion of angels sent down by Allah (8:9) – which were, of course, visible only to Muhammad (8:50). (For some reason, the angels didn’t show at the next battle, in which the Muslims were routed at Uhud).
Much of the 8th Sura, one of the Qur’an’s more violent chapters, was “revealed” following the aftermath of the Battle of Badr. Many of the verses make little sense outside of their historical context, proving that the Sira (biography of Muhammad) is necessary for interpreting the Quran.
In this case, the historical context is completely at odds with any misconception on the part of modern-day Muslims that the Battle of Badr was a defensive conflict. Only the Meccans fought in defense of their lives and property that day – and they did so reluctantly after Muhammad took monumental steps to force them into battle.