Islamic Laws are made up of Shari’ah (‘شريعة Šarīʿah) and Islamic jurisprudence (فقه Fiqh). Shari’ah is seen as sacred and constitutes the Qur’an and Prophet Muhammad‘s Sunnah (way), which is found in the Hadith and Sira. Islamic jurisprudence is a complimentary expansion of the former by Islamic jurists.
Shari’ah not only governs public life, but also many facets of ones personal life. It has laws covering Muslim interactions with non-Muslims, sexuality, food, rituals, leisure activities, dress, hygiene etc. This is due to Muhammad’s pivotal role in both the practice of Islam and the formation of Islamic law. He is considered by all Muslims, in Islamic theology, as the uswa hasana (perfect example). Since both the practice of Islam and its laws are based on the same source, they are inseparable from one another.
…Shari`ah is life for the Muslims’ souls and a way of life for them.
…Shari`ah, conceptually, refers to a set of rules, regulations, teachings, and values governing the lives of Muslims. However, these rules and regulations, contrary to how they are often described by many non-Muslims, cover every aspect of life. Shari`ah embraces worship, morals and conduct, as well as it embraces the political, social and economic, as well as other spheres.
Shari’ah and Human Rights
Many respected bodies, including the European Court of Human Rights, have concluded that Shari’ah is incompatible with accepted modern standards of human rights.
In 2003 and 2004, the court [European Court of Human Rights] ruled that “that sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy” (13/02/2003) ., because the sharia rules on inheritance, women rights and religious freedom violate human rights as established in the European Convention on Human Rights.
The House of Lords today drew stark attention to the conflict between sharia and UK law, calling the Islamic legal code “wholly incompatible” with human rights legislation. The remarks came as the Lords considered the case of a woman who, if she was sent back to Lebanon, would be obliged under sharia law to hand over custody of her 12-year-old son to a man who beat her, threw her off a balcony and, on one occasion, attempted to strangle her.
This is of no surprise when you consider that Islamic laws on human rights (and their laws in general) are based on the views and actions of a 7th century warrior ‘prophet.’ While other systems of law have adapted and changed with the passage of time, Shari’ah has not. Some may assume that Islamic thought simply has not reached enlightenment yet, and like other religious bodies will eventually adapt to the modern world. This is a naive and ignorant assumption which fails to appreciate the dogma of the Islamic faith, and therefore fails to recognize the impossibility of the trend ever taking hold in Islam. Reform is not possible under Islamic law. To reform it, would be to destroy it and Islam along with it. Shari’ah (consisting of the Qur’an and Sunnah) are seen as Allah’s unalterable holy laws. To attempt to change it would be considered blasphemous, as it constitutes Bid’ah, something which was forbidden by Muhammad himself. What can be altered is Islamic jurisprudence, but as that is extracted from, and cannot contradict, Shari’ah, the result will always be unacceptable to the modern world. Muslim scholars agree. The following is an excerpt taken from a fatwa in objection to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
….These so called rights and freedoms which they call for all people to enjoy regardless of religion make the monotheist and the polytheist equally entitled to these rights and freedoms, so the slave of Allaah and the slave of the Shaytaan are placed on the same level, and every worshipper of rocks, idols or people is given the complete right and freedom to enjoy his kufr and heresy. This is contrary to the laws of Allaah in this world and the Hereafter. [Quotes Qur’an 68:35-36, Qur’an 38:28, & Qur’an 32:18]
It is a call to abolish the ruling on apostasy, and to openly flaunt the principles of kufr and heresy. It is a call to open the door to everyone who wants to criticize Islam or the Prophet of Islam Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and to have the freedom to criticize and express oneself with no restrictions.
These are corrupt principles. Even if they suit their lives, values and religion, they do not suit us and they are contrary to our pure sharee’ah, which brought rulings that are suited to individuals and societies, and establish noble morals, and protect minds, honour, physical well being and wealth, and show people the religion which Allaah loves and is pleased with….
Also, in 1981 the Iranian representative to the United Nations declared that “the Universal Declaration of Human Rights represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which could not be implemented by Muslims.” Due to this unavoidable conflict between Islamic and Western notions of human rights, in 1990, the OIC (Organisation of the Islamic Conference) who represent all 57 Muslim majority nations, created the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, using Islamic scripture as its sole source. This declaration has been severely criticized by many, including; the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC) for its incompatibility with human rights, women’s rights, religious freedom and freedom of expression, by “imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law.” Furthermore, according to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ):
1) It gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based;
2) It introduces, in the name of the defence of human rights, an intolerable discrimination against both non-Muslims and women;
3) It reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standard in effect in a number of Muslim countries;
4) It confirms under cover of the “Islamic Shari’a (Law)” the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, that attack the integrity and dignity of the human being.
Separation of ‘Church’ and State
It is a generally accepted fact among Muslims, that there is no concept of “separation of ‘Church’ and State” in the Islam faith. We have already touched upon why Shari’ah is inseparable from the public and the personal aspects of practising Islam, so once again, we need to look to the example set forth by Muhammad. Islam, unlike many other faiths, was a theocracy from its very beginning. As the founder and Head of the first Islamic state, Muhammad most certainly did not believe in the concept of rendering unto Caesar what is Caesar’s, and this is reflected in Muslim thought. The results of a survey released in November of 2009 found a massive 67 percent of Turks said ‘they would continue acting in accordance with their religious beliefs if the Parliament passed a law that contradicted religious laws.’ and only ‘Twenty-six percent said they would obey the country’s law in this case’. As is evident; even in ‘moderate’ ‘secular’ nations like Turkey, we find that the majority of its population (in accordance with Sahih Bukhari 9:89:258) refuse to accept the authority of its government when they deem its man-made laws contrary to that which is prescribed in the Shari’ah.
So how are Muslims to approach the modern trend of separation of religion and state? The basic belief in Islam is that the Qur’an is one hundred percent the word of Allah, and the Sunna was also as a result of the guidance of Allah to the Prophet sallallahu allayhe wasalam. Islam cannot be separated from the state because it guides us through every detail of running the state and our lives. Muslims have no choice but to reject secularism for it excludes the law of Allah…..Secularists….will point out that under Islamic law, people are not all equal. No non-Muslim, for example, could become the president. Well, in response to that fact, in turn, secularism is no different. No Muslim could become president in a secular regime, for in order to pledge loyalty to the constitution, a Muslim would have to abandon part of his belief and embrace the belief of secularism — which is practically another religion. For Muslims, the word ‘religion’ does not only refer to a collection of beliefs and rituals, it refers to a way of life which includes all values, behaviours, and details of living.
Secularism cannot be a solution for countries with a Muslim majority or even a sizeable minority, for it requires people to replace their God-given beliefs with an entirely different set of man-made beliefs. Separation of religion and state is not an option for Muslims because is requires us to abandon Allah’s decree for that of a man.
Indeed. To add to the words by the respected scholar; we see in the United Kingdom, which only has a Muslim population of 2 to 3%, there have already been demands (in October, 2009) to install full Shari’ah as its default law system, and a recent 2009 survey by The Equalities and Human Rights Commission revealed that a massive 44% of Muslims in the UK want to create their own communities and remain segregated from British society. Also in Kenya, while Muslims currently constitute only 10% of the total population, in August 2009 they began pushing for Shari’ah law to become a part of the Kenyan Constitution. At the moment (like in the UK) there are Shari’ah courts, but they hold little power and only apply to Muslims. The Christian majority are concerned that if Muslims succeed, the persecution of non-Muslims in Kenya will only intensify.
Spread of Shari’ah is Obligatory
This demand for (and the spread of) Shari’ah is obligatory. Jihad is often employed to force governments into implementing Shari’ah on Muslims and non-Muslims alike, thus expanding the Dar al-Islam (‘house/domain of Islam’). This, once again, is based on the Sunnah of Muhammad. Following the Farewell Sermon, he sent messengers to foreign leaders including; Negus, Chosroes of Persia, and the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius, commanding them to submit to his rulership; submit to Islam. We see the same thing happening today in the modern world (for example) in Somalia where President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, in February 2009, after two years of fighting gave in to rebel demands to impose Islamic law on the country.
The Muslims in a country that is not governed according to Islamic sharee’ah should do their utmost and strive as much as they can to bring about rule according to Islamic sharee’ah, and they should unite in helping the party which is known will rule in accordance with Islamic sharee’ah. As for supporting one who calls for non-implementation of Islamic sharee’ah, that is not permissible, rather it may lead a person to kufr…[See Qur’an 5:49-50
Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas, Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaaq ‘Afeefi, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan, Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (1/373)
Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars on Shari’ah
O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination. Hast thou not turned Thy vision to those who declare that they believe in the revelations that have come to thee and to those before thee? Their (real) wish is to resort together for judgment (in their disputes) to the Evil One, though they were ordered to reject him. But Satan’s wish is to lead them astray far away (from the right).
But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against Thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.
We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust;
It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah’s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers.
We ordained therein for them: “Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal.” But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers.
And this (He commands): Judge thou between them by what Allah hath revealed
, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is Allah’s purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious. Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah?
Say: “Shall I seek for judge other than Allah? – when He it is Who hath sent unto you the Book, explained in detail.” They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth. Never be then of those who doubt.
When they are summoned to Allah and His messenger, in order that He may judge between them, behold some of them decline (to come). But if the right is on their side, they come to him with all submission.
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah, and whoever obeys the ruler I appoint, obeys me, and whoever disobeys him, disobeys me.
Narrated ‘Abdullah: The Prophet said, “A Muslim has to listen to and obey (the order of his ruler) whether he likes it or not, as long as his orders involve not one in disobedience (to Allah), but if an act of disobedience (to Allah) is imposed one should not listen to it or obey it.
‘A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.
Narrated Aisha: Allah’s Apostle said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.”
One of the worst of evil deeds is referring for judgement to something other than the sharee’ah of Allaah
, namely man-made laws and human-made systems, the customs of one’s ancestors and forefathers, and the verdicts of soothsayers, magicians and astrologers, which many people do nowadays and approve of instead of the sharee’ah of Allaah with which He sent His Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Undoubtedly this is the worst type of hypocrisy and among the greatest signs of kufr, wrongdoing and evil, and it is the rulings of the Jaahiliyyah, which the Qur’aan annulled and which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) warned against…
…This is a stern warning from Allaah to all people against turning away from His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and referring for judgement to anything else. It is a clear ruling from the Lord against judging by anything other than His sharee’ah, that such a one is a kaafir, a wrongdoer and a rebellious evildoer, whose attitude is that of the hypocrites and people of Jaahiliyyah. So beware, O Muslims, of that which Allaah has warned against, and refer to His laws for judgement in all things. Beware of that which goes against them, and advise one another concerning that. Regard as an enemy the one who turns away from the sharee’ah of Allaah or belittles it or makes fun of it, and who facilitates turning to anything else for judgement, so that you may earn the honour of Allaah and be safe from the punishment of Allaah, and thus you will have done what Allaah has enjoined upon you of taking His close friends as friends, who refer to His sharee’ah for judgement and who are pleased with His Book and the Sunnah of His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and taking as enemies His enemies who turn away from His Book and the Sunnah of His Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem, Fataawa (12/259-260)
So those who refer for judgement to something other than the laws of Allaah, and think that this is permissible for them, or that it is better than referring for judgement to the laws of Allaah, undoubtedly go beyond the pale of Islam because of that, and they are kaafirs, wrongdoers and rebellious evildoers…
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, Fataawa (1/271)
The Sacred Legislator of Islam is the sole legislative power. No one has the right to legislate and no law may be executed except the law of the Divine Legislator. 
Imam Ruhollah Khomeini, Veliyat ul-Faqih
The right to legislate is for Allah (Subhannah wa Ta’aala) alone. Halaal (permissible) is what Allah made Halaal, Haraam (impermissible) is what Allah made Haraam, the Religion, the Law, the way to follow, the Path and the Faith to embrace, are all for Allah (Ta’aala) alone to decide. There are rulers and kings who consider what Allah made Halaal to be Haraam and what He made Haraam to be Halaal. This is an act of aggression against Allah (Ta’aala) in that they deny Him the right to legislate in His Kingdom and Domain.
Sheykh Abdul Rahman Adbul Khaliq, Al-Usool al ‘Ilmiyyah li Da’wati s Salafiyyah
Making Legislation for the Creatures is Shirk. Allah says: (Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not ordained) means, they do not follow what Allah has ordained for you of upright religion; on the contrary, they follow what their devils (Shayatin), of men and Jinn, have prescribed for them. They instituted taboos, such as the Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah or Ham. They also permitted eating flesh and blood of animals not slaughtered for consumption, gambling and other kinds of misguidance, ignorance and falsehood. These are things that they invented during Jahiliyyah, when they came up with all kinds of false rulings on what was permitted and what was forbidden, and false rites of worship and other corrupt ideas. It was recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said:(I saw `Amr bin Luhayy bin Qama`ah dragging his intestines in Hell) — because he had been the first one to introduce the idea of the Sa’ibah. This man was one of the kings of the Khuza`ah tribe, and he was the first one to do these things. He was the one who had made the Quraysh worship idols, may the curse of Allah be upon him. Allah said:(And had it not been for a decisive Word, the matter would have been judged between them.) means, the punishment would have been hastened for them, were it not for the fact that it had already been decreed that it would be delayed until the Day of Resurrection. (And verily, for the wrongdoers there is a painful torment.) i.e., an agonizing torment in Hell, what a terrible destination. 
Imam Ibn Kathir, Tafsir ul Qur’an
Seeking judgement from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw) is a must! Those who don’t see the judgement of Allah and implement it, they are rejecting faith. Those who believe, need to believe in all which was brought by Allah (swt). Islam is unlike all other religions which “pick and choose” what they want to believe, but Islam is a perfect religion. Allah the Almighty said: “This is the day which I have chosen, to make Islam as the religion I have chosen. And I am pleased with Islam as your religion.” (Qur’an 5:3)
Shaikh Muhammad Salah, Huda TV
Criminalize Personal Matters
Islamic laws criminalize:
(However, the Islamic definition differs from the Secular understanding of the word)
Intoxicants and Recreational Games
Intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana etc. and recreational games of chance, such as board games (including chess), card games and other forms of gambling are forbidden under Islamic law. Surprisingly, this was not always the case. Intoxicants (namely, alcohol) was permitted during the early phase of Islam. Muhammad even drank it and (rather strangely) performed ablution with it. In the Qur’an, wine is even praised and is described as being an aspect of heaven. However, what we now know as the Qur’an was allegedly revealed over a period of twenty-three years. As it stands, the Qur’an is arranged roughly from the longest surah (chapter) to the shortest. But if we read it in a chronological order, we can see the gradual shift in attitude towards intoxicants and such. Verses were ‘revealed’ as the situation in Muhammad’s life demanded. Followers were attending prayer at the mosque while intoxicated, so Qur’an 4:43 was revealed warning against such behavior. Later on we find Qur’an 2:219, which tells us that there is some good and some bad in intoxicants and games of chance. The hadith record that Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, in a drunken state, mutilated two camels, chopping of their humps and taking out their livers. When rebuked by Muhammad, he insulted him to his face, saying “Aren’t you but the slaves of my father?” Taking this into consideration, there is little wonder Muhammad then banned the consumption of intoxicants. Even going so far as to refer to alcohol (something which is found in heaven) and games of chance as “Satan’s handwork” in Qur’an 5:90-91. Commenting on chess, he said “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of swine.” After this revelation, Muhammad ordered beatings and flogging for anyone who broke these laws. Repeat offenders were ordered by him to be put to death. Later, Umar ( the second ‘rightly guided’ Caliph) would order eighty stripes as the mildest punishment.
In modern times, these laws still stand. There are out-right bans or severe restrictions put on the sale, purchase, and drinking of alcohol by adults in many Islamic majority countries, including: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, The Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, and The United Arab Emirates. Punishments vary according to country, but many are consistent with the Sunnah of Muhammad. They range from weeks to months of imprisonment, public flogging, and (in the case of Iran) the death penalty. This prohabition, in many cases, does not exclude the non-Muslim. For example; in June 2009, Catholic chef Sapon D Costa was jailed in Dhaka, Bangladesh, for possession of alcohol.
Apostasy (rejection of Islam)
In Islam, the rejection in part (i.e. apostasy via blasphemy in belief) of any of the individual pillars or principles of Islam, or discarding the faith as a whole, amounts to apostasy. Under Islamic law, it is a crime punishable by death. This punishment was prescribed by Muhammad himself who had said “Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.” Apostasy was one of only three reasons given by him where killing a Muslim is permitted. His wishes were followed by Caliph Abu Bakr, who had many apostates killed during the lengthy “Riddah (apostasy) wars” for their refusal to pay tithe. These people were not rejecting Islam as a whole but only refusing to abide by one of its five pillars (Zakat). This also attests to the fact apostasy was a serious crime within early Islam and was not some later innovation. In fact, it was one Qur’anic verse (the verse of the sword – Qur’an 9:5) which prompted Abu Bakr to fight. Various hadith record Muhammad’s command being followed by his companions, with atheists, Christians, and Jews being put to death for leaving Islam.
All four schools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement with the death sentence for males (who are of sound mind) guilty of Apostasy, with only slight variations on whether to allow the three days grace period. The Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence believe female apostates are not to be killed, but beaten and put under confinement until death or repentance, while the remaining Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools all agree the verdict for the female apostate is the same as for the male.
It is a criminal offense in Islam to speak ill of the faith, its Prophet Muhammad, and its holy Scriptures (Qur’an and Hadith). To do so is considered blasphemy, and blasphemy is punishable by death. If it happens to be a Muslim who is doing the criticizing, their actions would constitute apostasy, therefore they too would be liable for the death penalty. Contrary to what some may suggest, this is not the result of a latter-day innovation of Islam, but something that is deeply rooted within Islamic scripture and the Sunnah of Muhammad. The Qur’anic verse 5:33 calls for the murder, mutilation, or imprisonment, of those who make “Mischief” in the land, and Muhammad himself had asked his Muslim followers to kill several individuals who were guilty of blaspheming Islam and its Prophet. Muhammad asked Muslims to kill someone named ‘Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Salul) for making “evil” statements about him. He asked Muslims to kill Abu `Afak for making negative remarks about him and Islam. He asked Muslims to kill both Ka’b bin Ashraf and Asma Bint Marwan for writing inflammatory poetry about him and Muslims. Additionally, when Muhammad learned that one of his followers had stabbed and killed his slave women (other sources refer to her as a freed concubine: Umm walad, she was also the mother of a blind man) for making derogatory remarks about Muhammad, he declared that “no retaliation is payable for her blood.“ This has effectively set the precedent for all Muslims to follow with such retaliation. No higher authority than ones-self is needed for permission to kill blasphemers. It seems rather odd that sites like Wikipedia, when discussing the history of free speech in Islam, tend to neglect these historical incidents and focus on other issues such as the supposed Islamic ‘Golden Age‘ under the reign of `Umar ibn al-Khattab (the second Caliph). Surely the state of free speech under the reign of the prophet himself is worthy of mention, as this is what ultimately formulates Islamic law? Nevertheless, if we actually study the state of freedom under Caliph Umar, we see another side to this, and this is apparent in: ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab’s restrictions on expression and speech:
The scholars of Hadith narrated from `Abdur-Rahman bin Ghanm Al-Ash`ari that he said, “I recorded for `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the terms of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham:
- `In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a document to the servant of Allah `Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city. When you (Muslims) came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion. We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims. We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby. Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days. We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims. We will not teach our children the Qur’an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so. We will respect Muslims, move from the places we sit in if they choose to sit in them. We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons. We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor. We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets. We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets. We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims. We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.’
When I gave this document to `Umar, he added to it,
- ‘We will not beat any Muslim. These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.'”
In the modern-world, hash punishments for blasphemy (including death) are still applied in many Islamic nations including; Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan. Accusations of blasphemy are becoming more and more frequent in the East, and almost always lead to mob-violence (sometimes by thousands of Muslims) against non-Muslim minorities. For example, this was seen in the August 2009 riots against Christians in Gojra, over an alleged desecration of a Qur’an. Many Christian men, women and even children were burnt alive. In addition to this, Bibles were burnt and more than a hundred churches and Christian-owned homes were looted and destroyed. While there are numerous examples of individuals being sentenced by Islamic courts to death or imprisonment for blasphemy, they are rarely publicised by Western media outlets. Of course, there are a few exceptions when the blasphemer in question happens to be a Westerner. We’ve all heard of the Jyllands-Posten Danish cartoons and the resulting uproar. For no apparent reason (other than deeply rooted Muslim prejudice) these cartoons, once again, sparked violence and murder against the minority Christians in the East. By the end of February 2006 more than 40 people had died as a result of the angry reaction from Muslims, and its continued republication has resulted in more than 200 deaths and hundreds of injuries. We also have the November 2007 “Muhammad Teddy bear” blasphemy case, which led to a protest in Khartoum, Sudan. A protest where ten thousand Muslims carrying swords, knives, and sticks, after Friday prayers, called for the execution of a British teacher for allowing her students to name a teddy bear ‘Muhammad.’ And also the “Satanic Verses” controversy, which led to thirty-eight deaths and nationwide bombings of book-stores in the U.K and U.S.
Fornication between two consenting adults
Homosexuality under Islamic law, is a punishable crime. How it is dealt with differs between the four mainline schools of Sunni jurisprudence today, but what they all agree upon is that homosexuality is worthy of a severe penalty. In the Hanafi school of thought, the homosexual is first punished through harsh beating, and if he/she repeats the act, the death penalty is to be applied. As for the Shafi`i school of thought, the homosexual receives the same punishment as adultery (if he/she is married) or fornication (if not married). This means, that if the homosexual is married, he/she is stoned to death, while if single, he/she is whipped 100 times. Hence, the Shafi`i compares the punishment applied in the case of homosexuality with that of adultery and fornication, while the Hanafi differentiates between the two acts because in homosexuality, anal sex [something that is prohibited, regardless of orientation] may also be involved, while in adultery [and fornication], the penis/vagina (which are reproductive parts) are involved. Some scholars [based on the Qur’an and various ahadith] hold the opinion that the homosexual should be thrown from a high building or stoned to death as a punishment for their ‘crime’, but other scholars maintain that they should be imprisoned until death.  Another view is that between two males, the active partner is to be lashed a hundred times if he is unmarried, and killed if he is married; whereas the passive partner is to be killed regardless of his marital status. Within the context of Islamic thought, hostility towards homosexuality originated from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muhammad had stated, “If you find anyone doing as Lot’s people did, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.” He even went so far as to condemn the “appearance” of homosexuality, when he cursed effeminate men and masculine women and ordered his followers to “Turn them out of your houses.” This ruling on homosexuals was naturally adopted by his later successors. The father of Aisha and Muhammad’s first successor, Abu Bakr, had a homosexual burned at the stake. The fourth caliph, Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali, ordered homosexuals to be stoned, and even had one thrown from the minaret of a mosque.
Exact figures are hard to determine, due to the political turmoil in many of the Islamic states, but homosexual relationships, acts or behaviour are currently forbidden in approximately thirty-six Islamic countries including Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Morocco, Sharia areas of Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Yemen, with punishments including anything from a fine up to life imprisonment.   Worse still, ten of those countries out of the thirty-six impose the death penalty for homosexuals. They are Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen and some states in Malaysia. According to the Iranian gay and lesbian rights group Homan, the Iranian government alone has put to death an estimated 4,000 homosexuals since the Islamic revolution of 1979. In the secular nation of Turkey, a country which is often held-up as a poster-child for moderate Islam, persecution and violence against homosexuals [along with non-Muslim minorities] is on the rise, with eleven gays being killed within the first half of 2009 .
Lack of hijab/un-Islamic dress
In 2007, Iranian “morals” police arrested 230 in a raid on a “satanist” rave.
In 2010, Golam Minhaz, an inspector with Detective Branch of Bangladesh Police at Rangpur district [northern part of Bangladesh] detained 19 women in various areas in the city for ‘not wearing veils’.
Also in 2010, Shiria Khatun, progressive Brit-Muslim woman councillor, was forced to dress more conservatively after receiving death threats and sexually harassing phone calls. She told the police that callers threatened to kill her and her four young children, and in one call, they warned they would dig up parents’ graves and bury her there instead.
In 2010, a Saudi woman who filed harassment claims in Saudi Arabia without being accompanied by a male relative was sentenced to 300 lashes and 18 months in jail. Sawsan Salim lodged a series of complaints in 2007 at government offices and in court in the northern region of Qasim in which she alleged harassment by local officials, the New York-based rights group, Human Rights Watch, said. She was sentenced in January on charges of making “spurious complaints” against government officials and appearing “without a male guardian,” the group said in an e-mailed statement.
Also in 2010, Hamas banned men in Gaza from working in women’s hair salons because Islamic tradition forbids women from showing their hair to men who are not their husbands or blood relatives.
Pornography and Prostitution
Main Article: Pornography
Music and Art
Music, and some other forms of art (including Tattooing), under Islamic law are forbidden. Western music and movies In particular, have been declared as corruptive influences by Islamic clerics. The vast majority of Islamic scholars and all four schools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement that listening to, or playing musical instruments, and singing is forbidden. They form this opinion from both the Qur’an and Hadith. The only exception to this rule which can be extracted from the hadith is the permissibility of singing acapella accompanied by a duff (a hand-held one-sided drum) on special occasions (i.e. on weddings, Eid, during jihad etc.) This form of song is referred to as a Nasheed (نشيد), and the striking of the duff is permitted for women only and must not be done in the presense of men. There are several verses within the Qur’an which have been understood by highly respected early scholars and historians of Islam to be condemning music and singing. For example; in verse 31:6, according to the Tafseer of Ibn Kathir, “idle talks” is a reference to “singing and musical instruments.” While the Qur’anic verses on music and its prohibition may appear vague to non-scholars, the hadith are a lot clearer in regards to this issue. Authentic sources record Muhammad as saying “From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the use of musical instruments, as lawful…” and upon hearing music, Abu Bakr proclaimed “Musical instrument of Satan!” The mere fact that Muhammad condemned music in the same breath as other non-Islamic activities, such as illegal sexual intercourse and drinking alcohol, spoke volumes and the companions (including the four Caliphs) understood. As Abu Bakr rightly stated, unless performed under the various restrictions outlined in Muhammad’s Sunnah, music in Islam is considered of the devil.
The Islamic prohibition on images is well known by Muslims, hence the lack of imagery in Islamic religious art. Multiple authentic sources record Muhammad’s thoughts on images and representations of living beings (whether real or mythical in nature), and in several he states passionately “The people who will receive the severest punishment from Allah will be the picture makers.” In another he says “All the painters who make pictures would be in the fire of Hell. The soul will be breathed in every picture prepared by him and it shall punish him in the Hell.” Muhammad refused to enter any home which was decorated with images, and claimed angels would do the same with any home which contained pictures or dogs He once refused to enter the home of one of his wives (Aisha) when he noticed the decorated cushion she had purchased for him to sit on. In Aisha’s own words “I noticed the signs of hatred (for that) on his face!” She turned to Allah and Muhammad for repentance. On another occasion, Muhammad angrily tore to pieces a carpet, hung by Aisha to screen a door.
During the Taliban rule of Afghanistan between 1996 and late 2001, all forms of music and Television (i.e. moving pictures) were banned. TV sets, radios, etc were confiscated and burnt, and anyone caught with cassettes in their possession were jailed. In early 2001, they destroyed the historic 1,400 year old giant (175 and 120 feet tall) Buddha Statues which were located in the Bamyan Valley’s. While their actions may be called ‘extreme’, they were only adhering to a somewhat accurate interpretation of Islamic law based on the Sunnah of their prophet. Just as Muhammad had done before them, when he conquered Mecca and destroyed the 360 pagan idols which were housed at the Ka’aba, the Taliban were only destroying Afghanistan’s offensive (to Muslims) pre-Islamic ‘pagan’ heritage and art. If the Taliban’s actions are denounced by apologists as ‘un-Islamic’, then they must also denounce Muhammad’s. The truth of the matter is that their actions were very Islamic.
Islamic law permits:
Domestic violence against women
While domestic violence against women is a serious problem all around the world, none are more vulnerable than the women of Islam. Islamic societies, more often than not, simply refuse to acknowledge such issues as problems. To them its simply the Islamic way of life. This is due to domestic violence against women being permitted under Islamic law. It is explicitly endorsed by the Qur’an itself. In a 2004 sermon broadcast on Qatar TV, a Muslim cleric had said the following:
“We must know that [wife] beating is a punishment in Islamic religious law,….No one should deny this because this was permitted by the Creator of Man, and because when you purchase an electric appliance or a car you get instructions – a catalogue, explaining how to use it. The Creator of Man has sent down this book [the Quran] in order to show man which ways he must choose….We shouldn’t be ashamed before the nations of the world who are still in their days of ignorance, to admit that these [beatings] are part of our religious law,….We must remind the ignorant from among the Islamic Nation who followed the [West] that those [Westerners] acknowledge the wondrous nature of this verse,”
The verse being referred to is 4:34. According to this verse, a man may not only beat his wives for ‘rebellion,’ but also beat them simply for the fear of ‘rebellion.’ Whilst there are a few restrictions in regards to the practice of wife-beating (try to avoid the face, breaking bones, and do not sleep with them after beating them), they hardly offer comfort to a women who is abused with the blessings of her own god. The mere fact that the husband is allowed to physically abuse his wives (very often with impunity from the law) inevitably leads many to go beyond simply ‘beating’ them.
Wife beating has been an accepted part of Islam since its inception. In Aisha’s own words “I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!” The indifference to her words displayed by Muhammad proved its legitimacy within the laws of Islam. Muhammad declared “A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife.” Moreover, he not only allowed Abu Bakr to beat his own child-bride Aisha, but he also beat her himself, and according to Aisha it was not something ‘symbolic’ or a ‘gentle tap’ on the body; it was painful.
The effects can be easily seen in the Islamic world. A 2009 survey carried out by the United Nations Development Fund for Women found that nearly 90% of Afghan women suffer from domestic abuse. According to the director of Women for Afghan Women (WAW) “Their mothers are beaten by their fathers. They’re beaten by their fathers, by their brothers. It’s a way of life.” The Pakistan Medical Association found in a 2006 study, that 80% of Pakistani women reported being subjected to some kind of abuse within marriage, and the Progressive Women’s Association (PWA) believe up to 4,000 Pakistani women are burnt each year by husbands or in-laws as ‘punishment’. And also in 2006, the Refugee Workers Association Woman’s Group (GIK-DER) found that up to 80% of Turkish women were victims of domestic violence and sexual harassment in ‘moderate’ Turkey.
Gender equality is not only an alien concept within Islamic societies, but also completely contrary to Islamic beliefs. This much is proven simply by the Qur’anic law which allows men to marry up to four wives at a time. However, gender disparity within Islam goes a lot further, and we see this reflected in modern Islamic laws. For example; in the Islamic Republic of Iran, some women’s rights activists have criticised the laws governing women. They say women face difficulties in “getting a divorce and criticize inheritance laws they say are unjust and the fact their court testimony is worth half that of a man’s”, and they also “cannot run for president or become judges.” Many female activists have been flogged and given hash jail sentences, numbering several years, for protesting such laws. In mid 2007 Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, responded to these allegations of discrimination, with the following:
“We are witnessing in our country that some women activists and some men are trying to play with Islamic laws….in order to harmonize them with international conventions related to women,….This is wrong….They shouldn’t see the solution in changing Islamic jurisprudence laws,”
He also indicated that “some Islamic rules regarding women could change if jurisprudence research led to a new understanding.” Unfortunately, this is were reformers in Islamic societies hit a brick wall. As we had mentioned earlier, Islamic jurisprudence can be revised, but as it is extracted from, and cannot contradict, Shari’a (which consists of Allah’s divine laws found within the Qur’an and Hadith), the results will always be unacceptable to our modern standards. What activists are indirectly trying to reform is not Iranian laws, but Islam itself, as each of these women’s rights violations are sanctioned by Islamic scripture.
Many inheritance laws are taken straight from the Qur’an. For example, according to Qur’an 4:11, a male inherits twice that of a female. Its the same concerning the worth of a women’s testimony in court; we find this law in Qur’an 2:282. Muhammad himself had been recorded by authentic Islamic sources explaining the necessity for such gender disparity within Islamic law, calling women deficient in intelligence:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, “Isn’t the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?” The women said, “Yes.” He said, “This is because of the deficiency of a woman’s mind.”
He further explain that women are not only deficient in intelligence, but also in religion, and that this has resulted in most of the dwellers of hell being women. In June 2007, Saudi Cleric Abd Al-Aziz Al-Fawzan, in a poor attempt to counter criticism aimed at these sayings of Muhammad, had said these ahadith highlight the ‘fact’ that women’s twisted nature stems from their very creation. These statements, by both Muhammad and Abd Al-Aziz Al-Fawzan, reflect the Islamic belief that Allah made Eve menstruate, suffer pregnancy and become stupid as a punishment for her transgressions in the garden, therefore all women menstruate (deficient in religion) and are created stupid (deficient in intelligence). Those same authentic sources also record Muhammad condemning women in high social positions (i.e. presidents, judges etc), declaring “Never will succeed such a nation that makes a woman their ruler.”
Islamic law allows, encourages, and even demands lying by its followers. Lying for Islam is generally (but inaccurately) referred to as taqiyya. Many Muslims will claim that this is not an Islamic, but a Shi’ite practice. However, this is not true. There are many verses in the Qur’an which condone lying and deception, and several classical and contemporary Sunni scholars have validated its place within main-stream Islam. In the inquisition miḥna during the Caliphate of al-Ma’mun, a number of Sunni scholars used taqiyya, attesting to the Qur’an as having been created despite believing the opposite. Given these facts, some will go on to attack the strict definition of taqiyya and claim that it is “only allowed to save one’s own life” or that its “restricted to its use in war”. This is where the critics use of the term “taqiyya” is wrong. Lying outside of trying to save one’s life or a war is certainly permitted in Islam, but it is not referred to as taqiyya. It is more accurate to simply call it “lying for Islam”. In sahih (authentic) hadith, Muhammad admits to being a liar and advises its acceptable for Muslims to do likewise, allowing his followers to use deception to silence critics. One of the 99 “holy names” of the Islamic deity is Al-Makir (the Deceiver), and in the Qur’an Allah refers to himself as the ‘best deceiver’, and admits to deceiving Muslims and creating Christianity through deception. With all things considered, the fact remains that Islamic teachings as a whole encourage dishonesty and even elevates it to a holy status.
Following a precedent set by Muhammad, pedophilia is permitted under Islamic law. This practice is sanctioned by both the Qur’an and the Hadith. In the Qur’an we find this in verse 65:4. This verse deals with the Iddat (العدة), which is a waiting period a female must observe before she can remarry. The stipulated waiting period for a divorced girl who has not yet menstruated is three months. The meaning of this verse has been clarified by numerous tafsir’s (authoritative Qur’anic commentaries) and many sahih hadith. Muhammad himself has been recorded by authentic Islamic sources explaining the meaning of this verse as “those who never had menses, their prescribed period is three months before puberty.” While some (but definitely not all) Western apologists may attempt to deny this sanction of pedophilia within their holy text, they hold no sway with Muslims in how Islam is practised; it is the Islamic texts themselves which hold the power, and Islamic scholars in the modern era still agree that marrying and having sex with pre-pubescent girls is permitted. For example; the influential Muslim scholar and thinker Syed Abul A’ala Maududi (1903 – 1979) commented on verse 65:4 and those who attempt to deny scripture:
….making mention of the waiting-period for the girls who have not yet menstruated, clearly proves that it is not only permissible to give away the girl in marriage at this age but it is also permissible for the husband to consummate marriage with her. Now, obviously no Muslim has the right to forbid a thing which the Quran has held as permissible
As has already been mentioned, Muhammad committed pedophilia, and even according to the most stringent clinical definition of pedophilia – the DSM-IV-TR, he was a pedophile. His actions fulfilled all three requirements needed for a positive diagnosis; he had sexual urges/relations towards/with a pre-pubescent child (generally age 13 years or younger) over a period of at least six months, he acted on those sexual urges, and he was over 16 years-old and at least 5 years older than the child involved. Muhammad was engaged to Aisha bint Abu Bakr when she was only six years of age and he was fifty-one, and consummated the relationship while she was still pre-pubescent, aged just 9 years old (at the very least, she remained pre-pubescent until aged fifteen). Many people assume that to be diagnosed as a pedophile there needs to be a pattern of conduct, but (as is clear from the DSM criteria) this is not the case, and even if it were; Aisha’s abuse is only known to us due to her being a wife to Muhammad. Who’s to know how many children suffered at the hands of Muhammad’s perversion? Others will claim that it was the ‘cultural norm’ and Aisha was ‘offered’ in marriage by her father. This is false. It was Muhammad who approached Abu Bakr, and Abu Bakr originally protested. However, even if she was offered to Muhammad, this does not alter the fact that as the ‘uswa hasana’ his actions are forever considered lawful and morally acceptable in Islam. Muhammad even justified his perversion with a ‘divine’ vision from Allah, something which also destroys the apologists appeal to cultural relativism; according to Muhammad, the marriage was due to the will of Allah, and not the culture.
Because of its many endorsements within Islam, pedophilic marriages are common practice in many Islamic countries, and Islamic authorities are left powerless:
Because this happened to the Prophet, we cannot tell people that it is prohibited to marry at an early age.
In the East, girls far below the age of puberty are forcibly married to older persons (sometimes in their 50s and later) for various personal gains by the girls’ guardian. Pedophilic Islamic marriages are most prevalent in Pakistan and Afghanistan, followed by other countries in the middle east and Bangladesh. This practice may also be prevalent to a lesser extent amongst other Muslim communities, and is worryingly on the rise among the growing Muslim populations in many Western countries, such as the United Kingdom (where, according to 2009 government figures in the UK, forced teen marriages have seen a ten-fold rise in just four years) and the United States.
Under Islamic laws, slavery is explicitly permitted. As Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Fawzan, a member of the Senior Council of Clerics had said in 2003, those who argue that slavery is abolished are “ignorant, not scholars. They are merely writers. Whoever says such things is an infidel.” Muhammad himself was a slaver. He not only owned many male and female slaves, but he also sold, captured, and had sex with his slaves. Even his wives owned slaves. Apologists will claim that Muhammad provided a system that would eventually lead to the abolition of slavery, but this is not true and nowhere does Islamic scripture support such a statement. Yes, Muhammad regulated it and allowed for the manumission of a slave, but this is by no means an obligation. It is clear that Muhammad held no animosity towards slavery, and at times even discouraged the freeing of slaves. He even encouraged racism by exchanging two black slaves for one Arab. As is clear, Muhammad’s actions perpetuated the existence of this reprehensible trade by institutionalising it within Islam, This sanction of slavery has helped the Muslim world create one of the largest trans-continental slave trades in history. The Eastern Islamic slave trade is the longest yet least discussed of the two major trades. Much like the Crusades and the Islamic Conquests which prompted them, you only hear of the one and not the other. Many people are not even aware that the Arab slave trade ever existed, even though it began around 650 AD (pre-dating the European slave trade by over a thousand years) However, It was only officially abolished (due largely to pressure from the West, rather than their own conscience) in the 1960’s and the slave trade still exists in the Islamic East. As of July 2009, there were over half a million slaves in Mauritania alone. In Pakistan, the labor minister of Punjab had said in early 2009 that there are “millions of forced laborers in ‘private prisons’ across the country”, and the town of Hajja, Yemen, in 2010 is home to another 300 slaves. This (just like the history of Jihad) is an ongoing atrocity that many want to erase from our history books and have largely succeeded in doing so. Unlike the Europeans who were primarily interested in male slaves for use as agricultural workers, the Islamic raiders interests (like Muhammad’s before them) lay in female slaves to use for sexual exploitation as concubines, in harems. Also, putting aside the 1.25 million white Europeans Christians who were captured and sold into the Muslim slave trade between the 16th and 19th century, the number of innocent Africans who were taken (or died in the process of being taken) as slaves over the last fourteen centuries of Islamic slavery is estimated to be higher than 140 million. This figure dwarfs the numbers that were taken at the hands of Europeans. And unlike in the West, male slaves (blacks in particular) were commonly castrated, hence the lack of surviving descendants of black slaves in the Middle-East.
- Main Article: Jihad See also: Misconceptions about Jihad and Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Jihad
Assassination and Murder
Mandate Dangerous or Harmful Rituals
- Main Articles: Adverse Effects of Islamic Fasting and The Ramadan Pole Paradox
Fasting (صوم Sawm) for thirty days every year during the Islamic month of Ramadan is the fourth Pillar of Islam, therefore it is compulsory (الفرض Fard). Fasting lasts from dawn till dusk, and Muslims must abstain from all foods, drinks, sexual intercourse, and even smoking. Contrary to popular Muslim beliefs, Islamic fasting (unlike medical fasting) has numerous adverse effects that have been observed using scientific studies and news sources. These include; the increase in irritability and crimes, effects on Health, such as the increased risk of diabetes, dehydration, tachycardia, severe headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and circulatory collapse. It can also cause problems with sleep, daytime drowsiness and alertness. Naturally, all of these factors affect the economy in Muslim majority countries during Ramadan. For example; the productivity of Arab businesses in this period drops by a staggering seventy-eight percent. Also, as the length of a fast is governed by the rising and the setting of the sun, this can cause a huge problem for those who live close to the North or South poles. The closer we get to the poles, the longer our days or nights become. They can eventually extend for up to several months each, making the fourth Pillar of Islam impossible to practice without starving yourself to death. Islamic scholars have said that even if a fast lasts for up to twenty hour a day, this is something a Muslim must accept. Obviously Muhammad was unaware of the poles. Persecution of non-Muslims also rises during the month of Ramadan, with people of other faiths often being attacked in Muslim majority countries for eating or drinking in public. August 2009, In Pakistan, two Christians were arrested and jailed for “desecrating Ramadan” by eating during daylight hours inside a Hotel.
The Hajj (حج) is another obligatory duty, being the fifth Pillar of Islam. It is a Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, which, like the Ka’aba, the black stone, and many other aspects of Islam, is pagan in origin. The pilgrimage takes place on the 12th month of the Islamic calendar, from the 7th to the 13th day of Dhu al-Hijjah.
Performing the Hajj is a physically exerting exercise, and many of the weaker pilgrims have died from it. Furthermore, Since 1987, officially there has been at least 3,315 deaths and another 1,500 injuries resulting from various accidents during the pilgrimage. These figures are extremely conservative, considering (for example) the 1994 stampede in Mecca. Officially only 250 people had died as a result of the stampede, and according to The Saudi Press Agency a total of 829 pilgrims had died during the pilgrimage for a variety of reasons, which included “old age, heart attacks” and “deaths that resulted because of the heavy throngs throwing pebbles on Monday.” However witnesses, doctors and a senior Asian diplomat had said the death toll for the stampede alone could have been over 1,000.
Punishments Under Islamic Law
The various methods of punishment under Sharia law, for what it deems as crimes, are extracted from both the Qur’an and the Hadith. These punishments are prescribed by Islamic scripture, so they constitute a fundamental part of the Islamic faith. Therefore they cannot, and still have not, been discarded from the practice of Islam.
Amputation, is the removal of part or all of a body part enclosed by skin. It is a prescribed punishment in the Qur’an, and within the context of Islamic law, it refers to the removal of the hands or feet. Today, amputation is used as punishment for theft in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, which reintroduced shariah law in 1999, and in Somalia, a court run by an extremist Islamic group sentenced four Somali men in June of 2009 to each have a hand and a leg cut off for allegedly stealing mobile phones and guns. In 2008, the Islamic Republic of Iran saw five double amputations in a single week–five convicted robbers were each sentenced to have their right hands and left feet amputated. When the Taliban, an Islamic militant group, took over Afghanistan in 1996, within a year, public executions, amputations and stonings were a regular Friday event in Kabul.
Stoning to death (رجم Rajm), according to traditional interpretations of Islamic law, is primarily a punishment for persons who engage in unlawful sexual relations (which include homosexual relationships). The criminals “hands are tied behind their backs and their bodies are put in a cloth sack.” They are then “buried in a hole, with only the victims heads showing above the ground. If its a woman, she is buried upto her shoulders.” The stones which are to be thrown at the criminal “should not be so large that the offender dies after a few strikes, nor so small as to fail to cause serious injury.” Astonishingly, due to the Islamic laws on rape requiring four male eye witnesses before guilt can be ascertained, many rape victims end up being charged with ‘adultery.’ As was the case for a 13-year-old girl in Somalia who in October of 2008 was buried up to her neck and stoned to death in front of more than 1,000 people in a football stadium. She was the victim of gang-rape. Incidents of stonings have been reported in Iraq and Pakistan, and forms a part of Afghan, Iranian, Nigerian, Indonesian, Sudanise, Saudi Arabian, and United Arab Emirate law. The Qur’an itself does not explicitely mention the act, but there are several Sahih (authentic) Hadith which speak of Muhammad ordering people to be stoned to death. According to hadith, the Qur’anic verses of stoning were written on a piece of paper and were lost when a goat ate the paper.
Main Article: Crucifixion
Crucifixion (صلبه Salb) typically refers to the inhumane and painful method of execution and/or torture by tying and/or nailing someone to a cross, stake or tree. It can also refer to the method of public display of a body after execution, such as the incident in Saudi Arabia when a convicted killer was beheaded and his body was “crucified.” Despite the fact that Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire in ad 337, out of veneration for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of crucifixion, Muhammad perpetuated this barbaric practice by declaring it a prescribed punishment in the Qur’an. Crucifixion as a method of torture and execution is reportedly still being used in Sudan and Iraq, both Islamic countries, and it is still a part of Iran’s criminal code. Adding itself to the ranks of shariah-practicing leaderships, Hamas, the Islamic governing body of Gaza, reinstated the penalty of crucifixion in 2008.
- Shariah – A hub page that leads to other articles related to Shari’ah
- Muslims rally for Sharia law in UK, prompting nationalist protests – RT – June 23, 2010
- KFC diner told ‘you can’t have bacon in your burger here – we’re now halal’ – Katherine Faulkner – The Daily Mail, March 25, 2010
- Muslim gangs imposing sharia law in British prisons – Andrew Gilligan – The Telegraph, March 15, 2010
- Fears over non-Muslim’s use of Islamic law to resolve disputes – Afua Hirsch – guardian.co.uk, March 14, 2010
- Sharia law sneaked into Labour Budget – Kirsty Buchanan – Daily Express, December 13, 2009
- Sharia law tribunal is proposed – BBC News, December 10, 2009
- Anjem Choudary on March for Sharia in London -YouTube Video: March to take place on October 31, 2009.
- Non-Muslims turning to Sharia courts to resolve civil disputes – Fiona Hamilton – The Times Online, July 21, 2009
- Revealed: UK’s first official sharia courts – Abul Taher – The Sunday Times, September 14, 2008
- Q&A: Sharia law explained – Dominic Casciani – BBC News, July 4, 2008
- Archbishop of Canterbury argues for Islamic law in Britain – Ruth Gledhill and Philip Webster – The Times Online, February 8, 2008
- Sharia law, courts likely on 2010 ballot – Mark Schlachtenhaufen – The Edmond Sun, June 4, 2010
- Loan caters to Minneapolis Muslim business owners – Katherine Lymn – The Minnesota Daily, March 24, 2010
- Burqa Barbie– Fox News video: Is Barbie setting women back or celebrating culture? November 22, 2009
- Totally Trashed’ – Fox News video: Detroit photographer roughed up by members of Islamic group, October 29, 2009
- Obama advisor says Sharia Law is misunderstood – Andrew Gilligan and Alex Spillius – The Telegraph, October 8, 2009
- Fairfax approves expansion of Islamic academy – William C. Flock – The Washington Examiner, August 4, 2009
- Shari’a Law – Fox News video: Strict set of Muslim precepts is finding its way into American everyday life, March 30, 2009
- Islamic Law’s Influence in America a Growing Concern – David Lewkowict – Fox News, March 29, 2009
- AIG Bailout Promotes Shariah Law, Lawsuit Claims Monday – Fox News, December 22, 2008
- U.S. Interest in Shariah Finance Opens Dangerous Doors, Critics Say – Fox News, November 13, 2008
- When God and the Law Don’t Square – Adam Liptak – The New York Times, February 17, 2008
- Jump up ↑ “A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” – Sahih Muslim 18:4266
- Jump up ↑ “Narrated Aisha: Allah’s Apostle said, “If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected.” – Sahih Bukhari 3:49:861
- Jump up ↑ Khalid Baig – Sunnah and Bid’ah – Albalagh, May 5, 2001
- Jump up ↑ Concept of Bidah in Islam – Alahazrat International Islamic Web
- Jump up ↑ David G. Littman – Human Rights and Human Wrongs – National Review, January 19, 2003
- Jump up ↑ Articles 24 and 25 of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
- Jump up ↑ The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights – International Humanist and Ethical Union, May 28, 2008
- Jump up ↑ “Comparison of Islam, Judaism and Christianity” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islam_judaism_christianity.htm. – ReligionFacts
- Jump up ↑ “‘Religion loves tolerance, but is not tolerant'” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/n.php?n=8216religion-loves-tolerance-but-is-not-tolerant8217-2009-11-17. – Hürriyet Daily News, November 17, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Martyn Brown – “Now Muslims demand full Sharia law” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/134080/Now-Muslims-demand-Give-us-full-Sharia-law. – Daily Express, October 15, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Emma Wall – “Ghetto Britain” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/view/66597/Ghetto-Britain/. – Daily Star, January 21, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Christians opose Muslim push for Sharia – Persecution.org, August 7, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “….I [Muhammad] invite you [Emperor Heraclius] to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe….” – Sahih Bukhari 4:52:191
- Jump up ↑ “Somali president bends to rebel demand for sharia law” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/02/28/somalia.sharia/index.html. – CNN, February 28, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “Ruling on democracy and elections and participating in that system” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/107166. – Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 107166
- ↑ Jump up to: 16.0 16.1 “Should he turn to the human rights organizations to get his rights?” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/98301. – Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 98301
- Jump up ↑ Imam Khomeini (Translated by Prof. Hamid Algar) – “Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.al-islam.org/islamicgovernment. – Published by: The Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s Works (International Affairs Department)
- Jump up ↑ Shaykh ‘Abdur Rahman ‘Abdul Khaliq – “Al Hukm is Only For Allah” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://islamicweb.com/beliefs/creed/Alhukm-Is-For-Allah.htm. – IslamicWeb
- Jump up ↑ Tafsir Ibn Kathir – “Making Legislation for the Creatures is Shirk Allah says:” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://abdurrahman.org/qurantafseer/ibnkathir/ibnkathir_web/42.47127.html. – Surah No.42
- Jump up ↑ Abandoning the ruling of Allah! – YouTube
- Jump up ↑ “….The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) replied: “Every intoxicant is khamr, and every khamr is haram.”….“Khamr is what befogs the mind.” These are the words spoken by ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab from the pulpit of the Prophet (PBUH),….Drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, opium, and the like are definitely included in the prohibited category of khamr. It is well known that the use of such drugs affects the sensory perceptions, making what is near seem distant and what is distant seem near; that their use produces illusions and hallucinations, so that the real seems to disappear and what is imaginary appears to be real; and that drug usage in general impairs the faculty of reasoning and decision-making….” – [Alcohol and Intoxicants in Islam] – Muslim Bridges
- Jump up ↑ “….the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Whoever plays games of dice has disobeyed Allah and His Messenger.”….” – Al-Muwatta 52 2.6, See also Al-Muwatta 52 2.7
- ↑ Jump up to: 23.0 23.1 “….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of swine….” – Sahih Muslim 28:5612, See also Al-Muwatta 52 2.7
- Jump up ↑ “….The messenger (Peace Be Upon him) asked:”Have you fermented it, even with one piece of ferment?” He (Gaber) said “yes” and he (Muhammad) drank….He answered that he had wine in a pot. Mohammed said: Pour me some to do ablution and he did….” – Sahih Muslim – Hadith #3753
- Jump up ↑ “….and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn, and palm trees…. Behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who understand!….” – Qur’an 13:4
- Jump up ↑ “….[in the Garden which the righteous are promised are] rivers of wine, a joy to those who drink; and rivers of honey pure and clear…..” – Qur’an 47:15
- Jump up ↑ Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World’s Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers,
- Jump up ↑ “….the humps of my two she-camels cut off and their flanks cut open and some portion of their livers was taken out. When I saw that state of my two she-camels, I could not help weeping. I asked, “Who has done this?” The people replied, “Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib….” – Sahih Bukhari 4:53:324
- Jump up ↑ “….Hamza looked at Allah’s Apostle and then he raised his eyes, looking at his knees, then he raised up his eyes looking at his umbilicus, and again he raised up his eyes look in at his face. Hamza then said, “Aren’t you but the slaves of my father?” Allah’s Apostle realized that he was drunk, so Allah’s Apostle retreated….” – Sahih Bukhari 4:53:324
- Jump up ↑ “….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) gave a beating with palm branches and shoes [for drinking wine],….” – Sahih Muslim 17:4226
- Jump up ↑ “….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him). He gave him forty stripes with two lashes…..” – Sahih Muslim 17:4226
- Jump up ↑ “….The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If he is intoxicated, flog him; again if he is intoxicated, flog him; again if he is intoxicated, flog him if he does it again a fourth time, kill him….” – Abu Dawud 38:4469
- Jump up ↑ “….Thereupon Abd al-Rahman b. Auf said: My opinion is that you fix it as the mildest punishment. Then ‘Umar inflicted eighty stripes…..” – Sahih Muslim 17:4228
- Jump up ↑ “Malaysian model seeks public flogging for drinking” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/08/20/malaysian-model-seeks-public-flogging-drinking.html. – The Associated Press, August 20, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Prohibition
- Jump up ↑ “Catholic chef has a “really rough time in Dhaka’s central jail”” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=15493&size=A. – Asia News, June 11, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Questions about Apostasy (Blasphemy) – Al Sunna.org
- ↑ Jump up to: 38.0 38.1 “Narrated ‘Ikrima: Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to ‘Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn ‘Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.'”” – Sahih Bukhari 9:84:57
- Jump up ↑ “Narrated ‘Abdullah: Allah’s Apostle said, “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims.”” – Sahih Bukhari 9:83:17
- Jump up ↑ “Ali was informed about a group of Christians who had become Muslims and then became Christians again. Ali arrested them, summoned them before himself and enquired about the truth of the matter. They said: “We were Christians. Then we were offered the choice of remaining Christians or becoming Muslims. We chose Islam. But now it is our opinion that no religion is more excellent than our first religion. Therefore we have become Christians now.” Hearing this, Ali ordered these people to be executed and their children enslaved.” – Quoted from ““The Punishment of the Apostate According to Islamic Law” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.answering-islam.org/Hahn/Mawdudi/index.htm. “, by Abul Ala Maududi
- Jump up ↑ “Mu’adh asked, “Who is this (man)?” Abu Muisa said, “He was a Jew and became a Muslim and then reverted back to Judaism.” Then Abu Muisa requested Mu’adh to sit down but Mu’adh said, “I will not sit down till he has been killed. This is the judgment of Allah and His Apostle (for such cases) and repeated it thrice. Then Abu Musa ordered that the man be killed, and he was killed. Abu Musa added, “Then we discussed the night prayers and one of us said, ‘I pray and sleep, and I hope that Allah will reward me for my sleep as well as for my prayers.” – Sahih Bukhari 9:84:58
- Jump up ↑ For further details, see: Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Apostasy
- Jump up ↑ Silas – “The Punishment for Apostasy from Islam/ Jurisprudence – E. Agreement of the Leading Mujtahids (Jurists)” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.answering-islam.org/Silas/apostasy.htm. – Answering Islam
- Jump up ↑ ‘Abdurrahmani’l-Djaziri – “The Penalties for Apostasy in Islam According to the Four Schools of Islamic Law” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.light-of-life.com/eng/ilaw/l5721et1.htm%23p19. – “The Case of the Female Apostate” (Pg. 19)
- Jump up ↑ “….So, on that day, Allah’s Apostle got up on the pulpit and complained about ‘Abdullah bin Ubai (bin Salul) before his companions, saying, ‘O you Muslims! Who will relieve me from that man who has hurt me with his evil statement about my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family and they have blamed a man about whom I know nothing except good and he used never to enter my home except with me.’ Sad bin Mu’adh the brother of Banu ‘Abd Al-Ashhal got up and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! I will relieve you from him….” – Sahih Bukhari 5:59:462
- Jump up ↑ “….The apostle said, “Who will deal with this rascal [Abu `Afak] for me?” Whereupon Salim b. Umayr, brother of B. Amr b. Auf, one of the “weepers”, went forth and killed him…..” – “Sirat Rasul Allah” by Ibn Ishaq page 675
- Jump up ↑ “….Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Who would kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf as has harmed Allah and His Apostle? Muhammad bin Maslama (got up and) said, ‘I will kill him.’….” – Sahih Bukhari 3:45:687
- Jump up ↑ “….When the apostle heard what she had said he said, “Who will rid me of Marwan’s daughter [Asma Bint Marwan]?” `Umayr b. `Adiy al-Khatmi who was with him heard him, and that very night he went to her house and killed her…..” – “Sirat Rasul Allah” by Ibn Ishaq page 675, 676
- Jump up ↑ “….So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her. Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Oh be witness, no retaliation is payable for her blood…..” – Abu Dawud 38:4348
- Jump up ↑ “Eight Christians burned alive in Punjab” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=15943&size=A. – Asia News, August 2, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “Muslims burn 75 Christian homes and 2 churches in Punjab” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=15941&size=A. – Asia News, August 1, 2009
- Jump up ↑ 50 More Homes Burned in Gojra – Jubilee Campaign, August 5, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “Murder of priest ‘religious revenge’“. Independent Online. 2006-02-08
- Jump up ↑ “JOURNALISM FOR INTEGRATION – THE MUHAMMAD CARTOONS” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/25734739/JOURNALISM-FOR-INTEGRATION-THE-MUHAMMAD-CARTOONS. – Encyclopedia Britannica
- Jump up ↑ “Yale Removes Cartoons of Prophet Muhammad From Forthcoming Book, Citing Fears of Violence” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,547572,00.html. – Fox News, September 08, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “Teddy teacher: Lawyer expects her to be pardoned after visit from British Muslim peers” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-498689/Teddy-teacher-Lawyer-expects-pardoned-visit-British-Muslim-peers.html. – Mail Online, December 01, 2007
- Jump up ↑ “Jailed teddy row teacher appeals for tolerance” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120801/http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/nov/30/uk.schoolsworldwide. – Allegra Stratton – Guardian, November 30, 2007
- Jump up ↑ “Calls in Sudan for Execution of British Teacher” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/01/world/africa/01sudan.html. – The New York Times, November 30, 2007
- Jump up ↑ “Armed Mob Wants British Teacher Dead” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.newser.com/story/12982/armed-mob-wants-british-teacher-dead.html. – Sam Gale Rosen – Newser, November 30, 2007
- Jump up ↑ Calls in Sudan for execution of Briton – Mohamed Osman – Associated Press, November 30, 2007
- Jump up ↑ Khartoum demo calls for teacher to be shot – Charles Onians – Agence France Press, 30 November 2007
- Jump up ↑ Dr. Koenraad Elst – “Afterword: The Rushdie Affair’s Legacy” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120710/http://koenraadelst.voiceofdharma.com/articles/misc/rushdie.html.
- Jump up ↑ Pipes, (1990) p.169-171
- Jump up ↑ “Riverdale Press To Be Honored” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/09/arts/riverdale-press-to-be-honored.html. – New York Times – Tuesday, May 9, 1989
- Jump up ↑ ”So when Our punishment came upon the people of Lut, We turned the city upside down and showered them with stones of baked clay, one after another.Qur’an 11:82
- Jump up ↑ IslamOnline.net – Death Fall as Punishment for Homosexuality
- Jump up ↑ See the chapter on “hudud” in Sharaya and Sharh Lum’a also al-Khu’i, Takmilah, p. 42-44.
- Jump up ↑ Abu Dawud 38:4447
- Jump up ↑ Sahih Bukhari 7:72:774
- Jump up ↑ Islam’s Love-Hate Relationship with Homosexuality – Serge Trifkovic – FrontPageMag, January 24, 2003
- Jump up ↑ WikiPedia – Homosexuality laws in Muslim countries
- ↑ Jump up to: 72.0 72.1 “The Iranian Letters – The New Dark Ages” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.iranian.com/Letters/1999/September/gay.html.
- Jump up ↑ Malaysian State Legislature Passes Bill on Strict Islamic Criminal Code
- Jump up ↑ homosexuals in turkey: istanbul week for gay rights
- Jump up ↑ “Iranian morals police arrest 230 in raid on ‘satanist’ rave“, Live Leak, August 6, 2007.
- Jump up ↑ “Women detained for not wearing veil in Bangladesh” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.weeklyblitz.net/568/women-detained-for-not-wearing-veil-in-bangladesh. – Special Correspondent – Weekly Blitz, March 3, 2010
- Jump up ↑ “Brit-Muslim leader forced to dress conservatively after receiving threatening calls” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://news.oneindia.in/2010/03/07/britmuslim-leader-forced-to-dress-conservativelya.html. – Asia News International – oneindia.in, March 7, 2010
- Jump up ↑ Saudi Woman Gets 300 Lashes, Jail for Complaints, Group Says – Henry Meyer – BusinessWeek, March 3, 2010
- Jump up ↑ “Hamas Bans Men From Women’s Hair Salons” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,588027,00.html. – Associated Press – Fox News, March 4, 2010
- Jump up ↑ “Somali Men Get 40 Lashes For Watching Pornography” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.newstimeafrica.com/archives/9386. – Shafii Mohyaddin Abokar – Newstime Africa, December 1, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “….The Prophet forbade the acceptance of the price of a dog or blood, and also forbade the profession of tattooing, getting tattooed….” – Sahih Bukhari 3:34:299 See also Sahih Bukhari 3:34:440, Sahih Bukhari 7:72:829, and Sahih Bukhari 7:72:845
- Jump up ↑ “Iran arrests 230 in raid on illegal rock concert“, ABC News (Australia), 4 August 2007.
- Jump up ↑ “Music is Haram” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.themuslimwoman.com/beware/MusicisHaram.htm. – The Muslim Women
- ↑ Jump up to: 84.0 84.1 “Music” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=312. – Shariffa Carlo – Islam Awakening
- Jump up ↑ “….innocent singing, unaccompanied by musical instruments other than the daff(small hand drum) is permissible are specified in the Sunnah. These are: 1) Jihaad. During jihad and other struggles in the way of Allah, battle songs are of great moral and spiritual benefit to the fighters….” – “Music – BEATING THE DUFF” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://islamicarticles.wordpress.com/music/. – Islamic Articles
- Jump up ↑ “….What is mustahabb (recommended) is to beat on the daff [simple hand drum] at weddings. This is mustahabb for women only, in order to announce the wedding and to distinguish it from fornication….As for men, it is not permissible for them to play any kind of musical instrument, whether at weddings or on any other occasion….” – “Music – BEATING THE DUFF” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://islamicarticles.wordpress.com/music/. – Islamic Articles
- Jump up ↑ “….According to the Sunnah, females can sing and beat the duff on the two ‘Eids (specific Muslim celebrations) and to announce a Muslim wedding amongst themselves, and their voices shouldn’t be raised loud enough or near enough to be heard by the men.” – “Music – BEATING THE DUFF” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://islamicarticles.wordpress.com/music/. – Islamic Articles
- Jump up ↑ “Ruling on music, singing and dancing – Fatwa No. 5000” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/5000/music. – Islam Q&A
- Jump up ↑ Sahih Bukhari 7:69:494v
- Jump up ↑ “….The companions unanimously agreed upon the prohibition of music and song but allowed particular exceptions specified by the authentic sunnah….Also, the four Khalifas, the fuqahaa among the saahabah such as Ibin Abaas, Ibin Umar, and Jaabir bin Abdullah as well as the general body of saahabah.” – Al Qurtubi’s Tafseer, vol 14, pp51-52, and Al-Aaloosi’s Tafseer, Roohul Ma’aani, vol. 21, pp. 66-68)
- Jump up ↑ “….We were with Masruq at the house of Yasar bin Numair. Masruq saw pictures on his terrace and said, “I heard ‘Abdullah saying that he heard the Prophet saying, “‘The people who will receive the severest punishment from Allah will be the picture makers.”….” – Sahih Bukhari 7:72:834
- Jump up ↑ “….I am going to narrate to you what I heard from Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). I heard him say: All the painters who make pictures would be in the fire of Hell. The soul will be breathed in every picture prepared by him and it shall punish him in the Hell….” – Sahih Muslim 24:5272
- Jump up ↑ “….Fatimah said to Ali: Follow him [Muhammad] and see what turned him back. I (Ali) followed him and asked: What turned you back, Apostle of Allah? He replied: It is not fitting for me or for any Prophet to enter a house which is decorated….” – Abu Dawud 27:3746
- Jump up ↑ “….I came to ‘A’isha and said to her: This is a news that I have received that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) had said: Angels do not enter the house in which there is a picture or a dog,….” – Sahih Muslim 24:5254
- Jump up ↑ “….Narrated ‘Aisha (the wife of the Prophet): I bought a cushion having pictures on it. When Allah’s Apostle saw it, he stopped at the gate and did not enter….” – Sahih Bukhari 7:72:844
- Jump up ↑ “….I noticed the signs of hatred (for that) on his face! I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I turn to Allah and His Apostle in repentance! What sin have I committed?” He said, “What about this cushion?”….” – Sahih Bukhari 7:72:844
- Jump up ↑ “….I took a carpet and screened the door with it. When he (the Holy Prophet) came back he saw that carpet and I perceived signs of disapproval on his face. He pulled it until it was torn or it was cut (into pieces)….” – Sahih Muslim 24:5254
- Jump up ↑ “The censorship of music in Afghanistan” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120630/http://www.rawa.org/music.htm. – RAWA, April 24, 2001
- Jump up ↑ A Profile On Bamyan Civilization – Ishaq Mohammadi
- Jump up ↑ “Muslim cleric: Some wives need to be beaten” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=40276. – WorldNetDaily, September 03, 2004
- Jump up ↑ “….and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them….” – Qur’an 4:34
- Jump up ↑ “….you should give her food when you eat, clothe her when you clothe yourself, do not strike her on the face….” – Abu Dawud 11:2137
- Jump up ↑ “….that you should not break her bones or leave a bruise….” – al-Tabari, 5:68-69
- Jump up ↑ “…. The Prophet said, “None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day.”” – Sahih Bukhari 7:62:132
- Jump up ↑ “…so when Allah’s Apostle came, ‘Aisha said, “I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!”…” – Sahih Bukhari 7:72:715
- Jump up ↑ “The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife.” – Abu Dawud 11:2142
- Jump up ↑ “….Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) then got up went to ‘A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) and slapped her on the neck, and ‘Umar stood up before Hafsa and slapped her saying: You ask Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) which he does not possess….” – Sahih Bukhari 1:7:330
- Jump up ↑ “…He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. He struck me on the chest which caused me pain, and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?…” – Sahih Muslim 4:2127
- Jump up ↑ “Afghan women hiding for their lives” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/09/23/afghanistan.women.abuse/index.html. – CNN
- Jump up ↑ “PAKISTAN: Domestic violence endemic, but awareness slowly rising” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.stopvaw.org/PAKISTAN_Domestic_violence_endemic_but_awareness_slowly_rising.html. – The Advocates for Human Rights
- Jump up ↑ http://www.toplumpostasi.net/index.php/cat/9/news/9633/PageName/English
- ↑ Jump up to: 112.0 112.1 112.2 112.3 ““Don’t “play” with Islamic law, Iranian women told” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSDAH44354320070704. “, Reuters, Jul 4, 2007
- Jump up ↑ “….Isn’t it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?” The women replied in the affirmative. He said, “This is the deficiency in her religion.”….” – Sahih Bukhari 1:6:301
- Jump up ↑ “….Then he passed by the women and said, “O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women).” They asked, “Why is it so, O Allah’s Apostle ?”….” – Sahih Bukhari 1:6:301
- Jump up ↑ [Islam: Women are “deficient in intelligence” (video)] – MEMRI
- Jump up ↑ “His Lord called out to him: Adam, is it from Me that you are fleeing? Adam replied: No, my Lord, but I feel shame before You. When God asked what had caused his trouble, he replied: Eve, My Lord. Whereupon God said: Now it is My obligation to make her bleed once every month, as she made this tree bleed. I also must make her stupid, although I created her intelligent (halimah), and must make her suffer pregnancy. Ibn Zayd continued: Were it not for the affliction that affected Eve, the women of this world wound not menstruate, and they would be intelligent and, when pregnant, give birth easily.” – Al-Tabari 1:280
- Jump up ↑ “….When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, “Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler.”….” – Sahih Bukhari 9:88:219
- Jump up ↑ “…it is permissible to lie if attaining the goal is permissible (N:i.e. when the purpose of lying is to circumvent someone who is preventing one from doing something permissible), and obligatory to lie if the goal is obligatory…” – Reliance of the Traveler, p. 746 – 8.2
- Jump up ↑ “A Muslim does not have to maintain his oath (faith) as long as what’s in his heart is true” – Qur’an 2:225
- Jump up ↑ “Let not the believers Take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah: except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah.” – Qur’an 3:28
- Jump up ↑ “Any one who, after accepting faith in Allah, utters Unbelief,- except under compulsion, his heart remaining firm in Faith – but such as open their breast to Unbelief, on them is Wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty.” – Qur’an 16:106
- Jump up ↑ “(unless you indeed fear a danger from them) meaning, except those believers who in some areas or times fear for their safety from the disbelievers. In this case, such believers are allowed to show friendship to the disbelievers outwardly, but never inwardly. For instance, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “We smile in the face of some people although our hearts curse them. Al-Bukhari said that Al-Hasan said, “The Tuqyah is allowed until the Day of Resurre ction. Allah said,” – The Prohibition of Supporting the Disbelievers – Tafsir Ibn Kathir
- Jump up ↑ “Let not the believers take the disbelievers as patrons, rather than, that is, instead of, the believers — for whoever does that, that is, [whoever] takes them as patrons, does not belong to, the religion of, God in anyway — unless you protect yourselves against them, as a safeguard (tuqātan, ‘as a safeguard’, is the verbal noun from taqiyyatan), that is to say, [unless] you fear something, in which case you may show patronage to them through words, but not in your hearts: this was before the hegemony of Islam and [the dispensation] applies to any individual residing in a land with no say in it.” – Tafsir al-Jalalayn – Tafsir Al-Suyuti
- Jump up ↑ Virani, Shafique. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p.48.
- Jump up ↑ “Abu Musa al-Ash’ari reported: I came to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) along with a group of Ash’arites requesting to give us a mount. He (the Holy Prophet) said: By Allah, I cannot provide you with a mount, and there is nothing with me which I should give you as a ride. He (the narrator) said: We stayed there as long as Allah willed. Then there were brought to him (to the Holy Prophet) camels. He (the Holy Prophet) then ordered to give us three white humped camels, We started and said (or some of us said to the others): Allah will not bless us. We came to Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) begging him to provide us with riding camels. He swore that he could not provide us with a mount, but later on he provided us with that. They (some of the Prophet’s Companions) came and informed him about this (rankling of theirs), whereupon he said: It was not I who provided you with a mount, but Allah has provided you with that. So far as I am concerned, by Allah, if He so wills, I would not swear, but if, later on, I would see better than it, I (would break the vow) and expiate it and do that which is better.” – Sahih Muslim 15:4044
- Jump up ↑ “Narrated ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Samura: The Prophet said, “O ‘Abdur-Rahman! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand then you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking (for it), then you will be helped (by Allah) in it. If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then you should expiate your oath and do what is better.” – Sahih Bukhari 9:89:260
- Jump up ↑ Muhammad permitted a Muslim to “say what he likes” i.e. to lie in order to kill Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf, a Jewish poet who wrote an anti-Muslim poem which offended him. This is a clear case of Lying endorsed by the prophet in order to achieve the objectives of Islam, therefore Muslims are permitted to lie and kill in defense of Muhammad, his character and Islam. Sahih Bukhari 4:52:271, and Sahih Bukhari 5:59:369
- Jump up ↑ Harun Yahya includes Al-Makir in his listing of Allah’s 99 names (Names of Allah/ No. 16 (Al-Makir)). He in this instance mistranslates it to mean “Planner”, but more correctly translates the same word in the same verse elsewhere on his site (The School of Yusuf – Harun Yahya). Lane’s Lexicon for Makr and the Hans Wehr dictionary both confirm the meaning of the term to be “Deceiver”.
- Jump up ↑ Qur’an 3:54: “And they cheated/deceived and God cheated/deceived, and God (is) the best (of) the cheaters/deceivers.” – 3. Ali-Imran – The Family Of ‘Imran (سورة آل عمران) – Revealed in Madinah (English: Literal) – IslamicNature, accessed August 25, 2011
- Jump up ↑ Qur’an 7:99: “Did they secure God’s scheme/deceit ? So no(one) trusts God’s scheme/deceit except the nation the losers.” – 7. Al-A’raf – The Heights (سورة الأعراف) – Revealed in Makkah (English: Literal) – IslamicNature, accessed August 25, 2011
- Jump up ↑ Qur’an 8:30: “And when those who disbelieved deceive/scheme at you to affix/affirm you, or kill you, or bring you out, and they scheme/deceive , and God deceives/schemes and God (is) best (of) the deceivers/schemers.” – 8. Al-Anfal – Spoils Of War (سورة الأنفال) – Revealed in Madinah (English: Literal) – IslamicNature, accessed August 25, 2011
- Jump up ↑ Qur’an 10:21: “And if We made the people taste/experience mercy from after calamity/disastrous distress touched them, then for them (is) cheatery/deceit/schemes in Our verses/evidences . Say: “God (is) quicker/faster (in) cunning/scheming , that Our messengers write what you cheat/ deceive/scheme.” – 10. Yunus – Jonah (سورة يونس) – Revealed in Makkah (English: Literal) – IslamicNature, accessed August 25, 2011
- Jump up ↑ Qur’an 13:42: “And those from before them had cheated/deceived/schemed, so to God (is) all the cheatery/deceit/scheme. He knows what every self gains/acquires , and the disbelievers will know to whom (is) the house’s/home’s end/turn (result).” – 13. Ar-Ra’d – The Thunder (سورة الرعد) – Revealed in Makkah (English: Literal) – IslamicNature, accessed August 25, 2011
- Jump up ↑ “When Allah showed them to you in your dream as few; and if He had shown them to you as many you would certainly have become weak-hearted and you would have disputed about the matter, but Allah saved (you); surely He is the Knower of what is in the breasts. And when He showed them to you, when you met, as few in your eyes and He made you to appear little in their eyes, in order that Allah might bring about a matter which was to be done, and to Allah are all affairs returned.” – Qur’an 8:43-44
- Jump up ↑ “And their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Marium, the messenger of Allah; and they did not kill him nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them so (like Isa) and most surely those who differ therein are only in a doubt about it; they have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow a conjecture, and they killed him not for sure.” – Qur’an 4:157-158
- Jump up ↑ “and those who never had menses, their prescribed period is three months before puberty, which indicates that giving her into marriage before puberty is permissible.” – “Hadith in Arabic from Al-Islam.com” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://hadith.al-islam.com/display/Display.asp?Doc=0&Rec=7644.
- Jump up ↑ “….the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old….” – Sahih Bukhari 7:62:64
- Jump up ↑ “….Dr Muhsin Khan in the official text published in Islamic University – Al-Medina Al-Munauwara, Saudi Arabia says in two related ahadith that Aisha had not reached puberty when she was 15 years old….” – Pedophilia Revisited
- Jump up ↑ “….The Prophet asked Abu Bakr for ‘Aisha’s hand in marriage. Abu Bakr said “But I am your brother.”….” – Sahih Bukhari 7:62:18
- Jump up ↑ “….You were shown to me twice (in my dream) before I married you. I saw an angel carrying you in a silken piece of cloth, and I said to him, ‘Uncover (her),’ and behold, it was you. I said (to myself), ‘If this is from Allah, then it must happen…..” – Sahih Bukhari 9:87:140
- Jump up ↑ “America Magazine: Child Marriage in Afghanistan and Pakistan, by Andrew Bushell; March 11, 2002” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.americamagazine.org/content/article.cfm?article_id=1631.
- Jump up ↑ “Americans For UNFPA: Virtual Slavery: The Practice of “Compensation Marriages” by Net Community of AfUNFPA; last retrieved Monday, 08 December 2008” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.americansforunfpa.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=630.
- Jump up ↑ “Ten-fold rise in forced marriages in just four years” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1196955/Ten-fold-rise-forced-marriages-just-years.html. – The Daily Mail July 2, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Christine Vendel – Man charged with statutory rape in ‘marriage’ to 14-year-old girl – The Kansas City Star, November 8, 2009
- Jump up ↑ “….I married a virgin woman in her veil. When I entered upon her, I found her pregnant. (I mentioned this to the Prophet). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: She will get the dower, for you made her vagina lawful for you. The child will be your slave….” – Abu Dawud 11:2126
- Jump up ↑ Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan’s “affirmation of slavery” was found on page 24 of “Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1” when accessed on February 17, 2007 http://www.salafipublications.com/sps/downloads/pdf/GRV07000
- Jump up ↑ “Slavery in Islam: Chapter 5” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://answering-islam.org./BehindVeil/btv5.html. – Answering Islam
- Jump up ↑ “Zad al-Ma’ad” by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
- Jump up ↑ “Zad al-Ma’ad” by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Part 1, Pages 114-116
- Jump up ↑ “….Waqidi has informed us that Abu Bakr has narrated that the messenger of Allah (PBUH) had sexual intercourse with Mariyyah [his Coptic slave] in the house of Hafsah….” – Tabaqat v. 8 p. 223 Publisher Entesharat-e Farhang va Andisheh Tehran 1382 solar h ( 2003) Translator Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghan
- Jump up ↑ “….Allah’s Apostle sent someone to a woman telling her to “Order her slave, carpenter, to prepare a wooden pulpit for him to sit on.”….” – Sahih Bukhari 1:8:439
- Jump up ↑ “….”Do you know, O Allah’s Apostle, that I [Maimuna bint Al-Harith] have manumitted my slave-girl?” He said, “Have you really?” She replied in the affirmative. He said, “You would have got more reward if you had given her (i.e. the slave-girl) to one of your maternal uncles.” – Sahih Bukhari 3:47:765
- Jump up ↑ “….Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves,….” – Sahih Muslim 10:3901
- Jump up ↑ Brunschvig. ‘Abd; Encyclopedia of Islam
- Jump up ↑ Nick Meo – Half a million African slaves are at the heart of Mauritania’s presidential election – Telegraph, July 12, 2009
- Jump up ↑ E. Benjamin Skinner – Pakistan’s Forgotten Plight: Modern-Day Slavery – TIME, October 27, 2009
- Jump up ↑ Jamal al-Jaberi – ‘Slaves’ in impoverished Yemen still dream of freedom – AFP, July 20, 2010
- Jump up ↑ Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean; the Barbary Coast and Italy 1500 – 1800, by Robert Davis, Palgrave MacMillan, 2004
- Jump up ↑ The Scourge of Slavery – Christian Action, 2004 Vol 4
- Jump up ↑ Islam’s Black Slaves, by Ronald Segal, Farrar, New York, 2001
- Jump up ↑ “Fasting and Tafsir of Ma’ariful Qur’an” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120904/http://www.haqislam.org/fasting-in-quran/. – Haq Islam
- Jump up ↑ Psychosomatic Medicine 2000 Mar-Apr 62:2 280-5 (pdf)
- Jump up ↑ “Productivity and Self-Discipline in Ramadan” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1§ion=0&article=101889&d=30&m=9&y=2007.
- Jump up ↑ Ramadan saw rise in violent domestic crimes – Daily News, Egypt
- Jump up ↑ “4 Gold Shop Robbers Killed, 2 Caught During Police Raids Across the City” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/4-gold-shop-robbers-killed-2-caught-during-police-raids-across-the-city/326794.
- Jump up ↑ “Ramadan Crime” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.indonesiamatters.com/762/ramadan-crime/.
- Jump up ↑ Ramadan: Productivity of Arab Businesses Drops by 78%
- Jump up ↑ El-Hazmi, Al-Faleh, & Al-Mofleh, 1987; Kayikcioglu et al., 1999; Ramadan et al., 1999; Schmahl & Metzler, 1991; Sweileh et al., 1992
- ↑ Jump up to: 169.0 169.1 169.2 169.3 169.4 169.5 Polish Journal of Occupational Medince 1991 4:3 219-28
- Jump up ↑ Ahmed BAHAMMAM/Sleep Disorders Center, Respiratory Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
- Jump up ↑ Therapie 54:567-72
- Jump up ↑ Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2000 44:101-7
- Jump up ↑ “….Survey carried out by Cairòs Institute of Social Sciences of the Arab World which was printed by ‘Leaders’, a Tunisian website….” – (ANSAmed)
- Jump up ↑ “Indeed, the fasts may be twenty hours long, but this is something one will have to adhere to.” in extreme latitudes – Sunnipath.com Q&A
- Jump up ↑ Christians Arrested for Eating During Muslim Holiday – ICC
- Jump up ↑ “At Least 250 Muslims Die in Mecca Stampede” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.nytimes.com/1994/05/25/world/at-least-250-muslims-die-in-mecca-stampede.html. – NY Times, May 25, 1994
- Jump up ↑ “Definition of Amputation” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=12537. – Medicine Net
- Jump up ↑ “Kingdom’s Leading Executioner Says: ‘I Lead a Normal Life’ – Mahmoud Ahmad, Arab News – June 5, 2003” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.arabnews.com/?page=0§ion=1&article=27038&d=5&m=6&y=2003.
- Jump up ↑ “Nigerian Islamic court orders amputation – Mail & Guardian Online – September 19, 2005” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.mg.co.za/article/2005-09-19-nigerian-islamic-court-orders-amputation.
- Jump up ↑ “Islamic Extremists Sentence 4 Somalis to Amputations – Associated Press, FoxNews.com – June 22, 2009” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,528139,00.html.
- Jump up ↑ “Somali Islamists Amputate Teenagers` Hands, Legs – JAVNO, June 25, 2009” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.javno.com/en-world/somali-islamists-amputate-teenagers-hands-legs_267541.
- Jump up ↑ “Spate of Executions and Amputations in Iran – Nazila Fathi, The New York Times – January 11, 2008” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120909/http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/11/world/middleeast/11iran.html.
- Jump up ↑ “Flashback: When the Taleban took Kabul – Terence White, former AFP correspondent in Kabul – BBC News – October 15, 2001” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120713/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1600136.stm.
- Jump up ↑ “What happens in Stoning?” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.apostatesofislam.com/media/stoning.htm. – apostatesofislam.com
- Jump up ↑ “Should Sharia laws be reconsidered?” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.iheu.org/node/262. – Sandhya Jain – International Humanist and Ethical Union, March 9, 2004
- Jump up ↑ “Stoning victim ‘begged for mercy'” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120712/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7708169.stm. – BBC News, November 4, 2008
- Jump up ↑ “Stoning – Frequently Asked Questions about Stoning” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.stop-stoning.org/faq_stoning. – stop-stoning.org
- Jump up ↑ References: Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal. vol. 6. page 269; Sunan Ibn Majah, page 626; Ibn Qutbah, Tawil Mukhtalafi ‘l-Hadith (Cairo: Maktaba al-Kulliyat al-Azhariyya. 1966) page 310; As-Suyuti, ad-Durru ‘l-Manthur, vol. 2. page 13
- Jump up ↑ “Convicted killer beheaded, put on display in Saudi Arabia – CNN – May 30, 2009” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/05/30/saudi.arabia.execution/index.html.
- Jump up ↑ “”crucifixion” – Encyclopædia Britannica Online – 2009″ (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120729/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/144583/crucifixion.
- Jump up ↑ Sudanese slave ‘crucified’ by his master not unusual in central African nation – Michael Ireland (Chief Correspondent, ASSIST News Service) – November 9, 2004
7 Christians mutilated & Crucified During a Series of Raids on Villages – Simon Caldwell (The Catholic Herald) – 25 September 2009
- Jump up ↑ “Christians in Iraq, including converts from Islam and people involved in mixed-faith marriages, are being crucified by Muslim terrorists, according to a Dutch member of Parliament studying the war-torn country (WorldNetDaily.com) July 17, 2007” (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=56726.
- Jump up ↑ “”Case Study in Iranian Criminal System” – Ehsan Zar Rokh, University of Tehran – 2008″ (archived from the original), http://archive.is/20120915/http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1108208.
- Jump up ↑ Hamas Reinstates Crucifixions of Christians – Nicole Jansezian – January 9, 2009